Chairman of the Committee on the Undergraduate Program:
Michael Dietler, H 131, 702-7150,
Departmental Secretary: Anne Chien, H119,702-8551,
World Wide Web:

Program of Study

Anthropology encompasses a number of historical and comparative approaches to human cultural and physical variety, ranging from the study of human evolution and prehistory to the study of cultures as systems of meaningful symbols. Anthropology involves, at one extreme, such natural scientific studies as anatomy, ecology, genetics, and geology; at the other, various social sciences and humanities ranging from psychology, sociology, and linguistics to philosophy, history, and comparative religion. Anthropology can lead (through graduate study) to careers in research and teaching in university and museum settings. More often it provides a background for further work in other disciplines of the social sciences, humanities, and biological sciences, as well as for professional careers in government, business, law, medicine, social services, and other fields.

Program Requirements

A meeting with the undergraduate chairman is required before formal admission to the program is granted. The Bachelor of Arts program in anthropology consists of thirteen courses, of which at least ten are normally chosen from those listed or cross listed as Department of Anthropology courses (a minimum of three from the introductory group Anthropology 21100 through 21400, plus seven others). With approval in advance from the program chairman, the additional three concentration courses may be offered by other departments.

Students are encouraged to construct individual programs and, in so doing, they should consult regularly with the program chairman. For a view of the whole of anthropology they may wish to include courses in each of the four recognized subfields of anthropology: archaeological, linguistic, physical, and sociocultural. Examples from courses currently offered follow:

Archaeological. Anthropology 20100, 21100, 21300, 26400, 26500, 26900, 28000, 28400, 29700, 29900, 36200, 36400, 36500.
Linguistic. Anthropology 27000, 27100, 27200, 27400, 29700, 29900, 37200, 37300, 37400, 37600, 37700, 37800, 37900
Physical. Anthropology 21100, 28400, 29700, 29900, 38200, 38600
Sociocultural. Anthropology 20100, 20500, 20600, 20700, 20800, 20900, 21200, 21300, 21900, 22300, 22700, 23700, 23800, 24100, 24200, 24300, 24600, 29700, 29900, 32000, 33100, 33400, 34500, 35300

The courses numbered Anthropology 21100 through 21400 do not presume any previous study of anthropology and may be taken in any order; their contents often vary and, if so, a student may take a course of the same number for a second or third time.

These courses are intended to offer an introduction to some of the substantive, methodological, and theoretical issues of sociocultural anthropology. Students emphasizing sociocultural anthropology are encouraged also to take one or more of the non-Western civilization sequences: African, South Asian, and Latin American. These civilization sequences normally feature anthropological approaches and content. Other civilization sequences can be taken for anthropology credit in accordance with the individual student's needs or interests.

Students who wish to emphasize study in biological, archaeological, or linguistic anthropology are referred by the program chairman to departmental advisers in these fields to assist them in developing the requirements of their individual programs.

Where desirable for a student's individual anthropology program and with the approval of the program chairman in advance, a student may also obtain course credit for supervised individual reading or research (Anthropology 29700), as well as by attending field schools or courses offered by other universities.

Summary of Requirements


from ANTH 21100 to 21400


additional anthropology courses


anthropology or approved related courses



Grading. Concentration courses must be taken for quality grades unless the program chairman gives permission in advance for P/N or P/F registration.

Honors. An honors program is open, on application to the undergraduate program chairman before the end of the junior year, to superior students with an overall grade point average of 3.25 or better who wish to develop an extended piece of research through a bachelor's essay under the approved supervision of a faculty member. One quarter's registration in Anthropology 29900 may be devoted to the preparation of the senior honors essay. For award of honors, the essay must be judged excellent by the faculty member who supervised the work and then by a second reader approved by the program chairman. No later than the fifth week of the quarter in which the student expects to graduate, two copies of the completed paper must be submitted to the program chairman by the student being recommended for special honors.


NADIA Abu EL-HAJ, Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Arjun Appadurai, Samuel N. Harper Professor, Departments of Anthropology and South Asian Languages & Civilizations, and the College
Andrew Apter, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Jean Comaroff, Bernard E. and Ellen C. Sunny Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Anthropology, Committee on African & African-American Studies, Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Science & Medicine, and the College
John L. Comaroff, Harold H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor, Departments of Anthropology and Sociology, Committee on African & African-American Studies, and the College
Manuela L. Carneiro da Cunha, Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Michael Dietler, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Raymond D. Fogelson, Professor, Departments of Anthropology and Psychology (Human Development), and the College
Susan Gal, Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
John D. Kelly, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Alan L. Kolata, Neukom Family Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
NICHOLAS KOUCHOUKOS, Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
CLAUDIO LOMNITZ, Professor, Departments of Anthropology and History, and the College
KATHLEEN D. MORRISON, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Elizabeth A. Povinelli, Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Danilyn Rutherford, Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Michael Silverstein, Charles F. Grey Distinguished Service Professor, Departments of Anthropology, Linguistics, and Psychology (Cognition & Communication)
Adam T. Smith, Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Michel-rolph trouillot, Professor, Department of Anthropology and the College
Russell H. Tuttle, Professor, Department of Anthropology, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, and the College


Courses numbered 10000-19900 are general education and introductory courses. Courses numbered 20000-29900 are intermediate, advanced, or upper-level courses and are open only to undergraduates. Courses numbered 30000 and above are graduate courses and are available to undergraduate students only with the consent of the instructor. Undergraduates registered for 30000-level courses will be held to the graduate-level requirements. To register for courses that are cross listed as both undergraduate and graduate (20000/30000), undergraduates must use the undergraduate number (20000). Many of the department's other offerings at the 40000- and 50000-levels that are not listed below are open to qualified undergraduates with consent of the instructor. Information about many course offerings was not available at the time this publication went to press. For more current information, students should consult the time schedule and course descriptions on the departmental bulletin board outside H 119, the quarterly Time Schedules, or the program chairman.

20100/40100. The Inca and Aztec States. This course is an intensive examination of the origins, structure, and meaning of two native states of the ancient Americas: the Inca and the Aztec. Lectures focus on an examination of theories of state genesis, function, and transformation, with special reference to the economic, institutional, and symbolic bases of indigenous state development. The seminar is broadly comparative in perspective and considers the structural significance of institutional features that are either common to or unique expressions of these two Native American states. A. Kolata. Autumn.

20200. Sociocultural Dynamics of Pre-Columbian Civilization (=ANTH 20200, ARTH 18400, LTAM 20200). This course explores, in a comparative framework, the social and cultural dynamics of selected pre-Columbian civilizations of Mesoamerica and the Andean region, including the Maya, Moche, Inca, and Aztec. We focus on three themes related to social structure and cultural expression: social production and human-environment interaction, systems of representation and knowledge, and the nature of rulership and sovereignty. T. Cummins, A. Kolata. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

20500. Hackers and Hacking: Culture, History, and Practice. This course examines the history and sociocultural impact of computing and networking from the perspective of those who have been most intimate with the development and diffusion of computing hardware and software technologies: hackers. Drawing upon historical, journalistic, anthropological, science fiction, and hacker accounts, this course examines hacking practices and ethics as they developed at the institutions such as universities, the defense department, and a few corporate entities where computers were first developed and programming as a distinct vocation first arose. We seek to specify hacking as a set of technical practices and ethical norms that have changed over time and across institutions although exhibiting some continuities across time and place. E. G. Coleman. Summer.

20600/31100. Films in India (=ANTH 20600/31100, CMST 24100/34100, HIST 26700/36700, SALC 20500/30500). This course considers film-related activities from just before Independence (1947) to the present. Most attention is paid to the Hindi film and especially to its "peculiar" features (e.g., song and dance). The course relies on people's notions of the everyday, festive days, paradise, arcadia, and utopia to pose questions about how people try to realize their wishes and themselves through film. We also look at how film is related to other media such as television. Some comparisons with Hollywood are made. Students are asked to familiarize themselves with existing approaches to Indian film against the background of more general approaches to film and the media. One film screening a week required. R. Inden. Autumn.

20701-20802-20903. Introduction to African Civilization I, II, III (=ANTH 20701-20802-20903, HIST 10000-10100-10200, SOSC 22500-22600-22700; ANTH 20802=ENGL 26300, GSHU 23000, SOCI 38300, SOSC 22600). This sequence meets the general education requirement in civilization studies. General education social science sequence recommended. This course presents the development of sub-Saharan African communities and states from a variety of points from the precolonial past up to the present. Part I begins by introducing the continent and its critical study in the West; goes on to interrogate the construction of eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth century images of Africa; and then, on the basis of a series of case studies, explores precolonial and colonial social organization, political systems, economic orders, and legal cultures. The winter quarter focuses on indigenous forms of knowledge, ritual, and religious experience in relation to colonial photography and cartography. In the spring quarter we approach the study of African society and history by way of an examination of ritual, aesthetics, and the meaningful production of the everyday world. Beginning with a consideration of various accounts of "traditional" magico-religious and moral systems described in the classical anthropological literature, we then turn to more critical and dynamic perspectives, seeking to capture the inherent creativity of African societies and their complex engagement with forces of colonialism and commodification. We explore the impact of the civilizing mission and the rise of new, hybrid cultural schemes as local communities encountered a range of colonizing forces. This encounter also gave birth to new religious movements and modes of resistance against colonial oppression. We conclude by examining the advent of a post-colonial era, in which popular culture, ritual, and aesthetics give shape to a distinctive African modernity. J. L. Comaroff, Autumn; A. Apter, Winter; J. Comaroff, Spring.

21101. Classical Readings in Anthropology: Archaeological Theory. Class limited to twenty students. The agenda and conceptual apparatus of contemporary archaeological thought rest squarely upon the discipline's early intellectual foundations. This seminar examines the roots of archaeological thought and practice in classic writings from the early systematic explorations of the past through its material culture through Walter W. Taylor's watershed study of the discipline in 1948. We examine works of seminar researchers including Layard, Schliemann, Morgan, Petrie, Boas, Kidder, Lubbock, Kossina, Childe, and Morley. A. T. Smith. Winter.

21102/38400. Classical Readings in Anthropology: History and Theory of Human Evolution (=ANTH 21102/38400, EVOL 38400, HIPS 23600). This course is a seminar on racial, sexual, and class bias in the classic theoretic writings, autobiographies, and biographies of Darwin, Huxley, Haekel, Keith, Osborn, Jones, Gregory, Morton, Broom, Black, Dart, Weidenreich, Robinson, Leakey, LeGros-Clark, Schultz, Straus, Hooton, Washburn, Coon, Dobzhansky, Simpson, and Gould. R. Tuttle. Autumn.

Numerous courses under the number ANTH 212XX are offered that are not included on the list that follows. Please consult the quarterly Time Schedules for final information.

21201. Intensive Study of a Culture: Chicago Blues. This course is an anthropological and historical exploration of one of the most original and influential American musical genres in its social and cultural context. The course traces the origins of the "Delta Blues" in the culture of African-American sharecroppers of rural Mississippi, its transposition to Chicago during the "great migration," its development into "Chicago Blues," and its eventual spread outside the African-American community. The course examines transformations in the cultural meaning of the blues and its place within broader American cultural currents, the social and economic situation of blues musicians, and the political economy of blues within the wider music industry. M. Dietler. Spring.

21202. Intensive Study of a Culture: Eastern Europe. This close study of an ethnographic region explores the current dramatic transformations in Eastern Europe after the cold war, the meanings of nationalism in the region, everyday life under state socialism, how and why the "fall of Communism" occurred, current transnational migrations, the situation of ethnic and linguistic minorities, and the role of intellectuals in political life. S. Gal. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21203. Intensive Study of a Culture: Iroquois. This course offers an overview of Iroquois culture from its prehistoric backgrounds to the modern day. In addition to studying the basic data of Iroquois ethnology, the course examines how Europeans and anthropologists have viewed the Iroquois, as well as how the Iroquois view themselves and others. R. Fogelson. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21204. Intensive Study of a Culture: The Brazilian Amazon. This course deals with the Amazon and sustainable development. It focuses on international and Brazilian policies for the Amazon and on the involvement of traditional peoples in environmental issues. M. da Cunha. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21205. Intensive Study of a Culture: Colonial New Mexico. In an area with a rich documentary and ethnographic record, indigenous communities have often been viewed as coherent, bounded, and persistent units of social, political, and economic organization whose ethnographic present can be unproblematically transposed onto an archaeological past. Using primary ethnographic, documentary, and archaeological source material, we examine substantive and methodological issues raised by this claim. We examine the development of novel and integral economic, political, and social networks that have defined colonial society in the region over the last five hundred years. M. Lycett. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21206/33600. Intensive Study of a Culture: The Tswana, Past and Present (=AFAM 20500, ANTH 21206/33600). This course describes and analyzes the sociocultural order of an African people during the precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial periods. J. Comaroff. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21207/34600. Intensive Study of a Culture: Problems in the History and Ethnography of Indonesia. Do Indonesian societies have any unity other than that which was originally imposed upon them by outsiders? Beginning with a review of the Dutch East Indies' colonial past, we consider how various scholars have responded to this question. Readings range from interpretive ethnographies in the tradition of Clifford Geertz, to classics of Dutch structuralism, to recent treatments of marginality and the postcolonial predicament. The course pays special heed to a trait commonly attributed to the region's cultures: the ability to localize objects and texts from afar. D. Rutherford. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21208/39500. Intensive Study of a Culture: Archaeology of Eurasia. This course explores the prehistory and early history of the Eurasian Steppe and Caucasia from the appearance of the first settled villages during the Neolithic through the rise of the first complex societies. The goal of the course is to provide students with an overview of the archaeological record from these regions and an understanding of the history of research in the area. We address four general themes: (1) social and political relationships between hunting and gathering, agricultural, and pastoral societies; (2) large-scale migrations and long-distance contacts; (3) the impact of technological innovations on social transformations; and (4) the impact of Eurasian societies on the surrounding regions. A. T. Smith. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21209/40600. Intensive Study of a Culture: Yoruba (=AFAM 20400, ANTH 21209/40600). This course is a rigorous survey of kinship, politics, economics, and religion among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria, with special emphasis on ritual, gender, and colonialism. A. Apter. Autumn.

21210/40700. Intensive Study of a Culture: Aboriginal Australia. This course examines the role and function of real and imagined indigenous beliefs and practices in the making of the Australian nation, the discipline of modern anthropology, and the conditions of contemporary indigenous life. The course reads classic and contemporary ethnography, mass and independent film, and state and public documents to stage a set of questions about indigenous life in settler modernities; the function of difference and alterity in the formation of liberal humanist nationalisms; and the complicated and uneven role anthropology has played in the negotiation of identity, difference and alterity in law and state treatment. E. Povinelli. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21211/41700. Intensive Study of a Culture: Anthropology of the Middle East. This course is an in-depth introduction to historical and ethnographic studies of the Middle East examined through the lens of broader issues in anthropological inquiry. The first half of the course is organized around what have long been gate-keeping concepts in anthropologies of the Middle East. We examine writings framed under the rubrics of "Islam," "the Tribe," and "Honor and Shame" through a reading of canonical texts together with critical reworkings of those concepts. Regionally specific writings are read in conjunction with anthropological and philosophical interventions that speak to the more general issues at hand: theories of religion, of tradition, and of gender and sexuality. N. Abu El-Haj. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21212/32100. Intensive Study of a Culture: Hindu (=ANTH 21212/32100, SOSC 25600). PQ: Third-year standing. May be taken for either 100 or 200 units of credit. India's peasants and natural philosophers (i.e., astrologers, physicians, and moralists) commonly assume that people are made of ether, air, fire, water, and earth; and that they therefore seek esoteric knowledge, advantage, attachment, coherence, release, and the contraries of these. Students experiment with these assumptions through a simulation-game, testing its results against ethnographies of actual Indian institutions and behavior, and aiming to design a Hindu social science capable of perceiving and understanding such a world. M. Marriott. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21301. Modern Readings in Anthropology: Shamanism. The venerable topic of shamanism is explored in its original Siberian manifestations, North American variations, and extensions into Central and South America and elsewhere. The New Age and not-so-New Age interest in shamanism is also considered. R. Fogelson. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21302/30300. Modern Readings in Anthropology: Gender Theory and Anthropology. This course examines gender as a cultural category in anthropological theory, as well as in everyday life. After reviewing the historical sources of the current concern with women, gender, and sexuality in anthropology and the other social sciences, we critically explore some key controversies, such as the relationship between production and reproduction in different sociocultural orders; the links between "public" and "private" in current theories of politics; the construction of sexualities, nationalities, and citizenship; and women and gender in postcolonial discourse. S. Gal. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21303. Modern Readings in Anthropology: Making the Natural World (The Anthropology of Ecology). Humans have "made" the natural world both conceptually (through the creation of various ideas about nature, ecosystem, organism, and ecology) and materially (through millions of years of direct action in and on the landscape). In this course we not only consider the conceptual underpinnings of contemporary Western notions of ecology, environment, and balance, but also examine several specific historical trajectories of anthropogenic landscape change. We approach these issues from the vantage of several different disciplinary traditions including environmental history, ecological anthropology, and paleoecology. K. Morrison. Summer.

21304/42100. Modern Readings in Anthropology: Kinship and Everyday Life. PQ: Third- or fourth-year standing. Once the focus of fierce debate in anthropology and social theory, in recent years the topic of kinship seems to have given way to broader concerns, such as globalization and the politics of identity. Yet the problem of kinship often resurfaces. This course provides a critical survey of debates, old and new, in the study of kinship with an eye towards exploring their relevance to research on the reproduction and erosion of sociocultural difference. Readings range from classical treatments to recent reformulations that use kinship as a lens for exploring the dynamics of history, memory, and power. D. Rutherford. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21305/45300. Modern Readings in Anthropology: Explorations in Oral Narrative (The Folk Tale). This course studies the role of storytelling and narrativity in society and culture. Among these are a comparison of folk tale traditions; the shift from oral to literate traditions and the impact of writing; the principal schools of analysis of narrative structure and function; and the place of narrative in the disciplines: law, psychoanalysis, politics, history, philosophy, and anthropology. Story performance and contemporary storytelling in America are considered and encouraged. J. Fernandez. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21306. Modern Readings in Anthropology: Introduction to Medical Anthropology. There is a growing acceptance in American society that illness and, most especially, the experience of illness is suffused at every level by the cultural, social, political, and moral. This course examines the specifics of this claim by looking at the diverse and complicated ways that cultural meanings, social factors, and political orientations texture and shape the experience of illness and healing in different cultures and contexts, ranging from the "biomedical" West to religious healing communities in the Caribbean. E. G. Coleman. Summer.

21401. The Practice of Anthropology: Logic and Practice of Archaeology. This course offers an overview of the concepts and practice of anthropological archaeology. We discuss the varied goals of archaeological research and consider the range of ways in which archaeologists build inferences about the past from the material record. Throughout the quarter, the more general discussion of research logic and practice is situated in the context of detailed consideration of current archaeological projects from different parts of the world. M. Lycett. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21402/33500. The Practice of Anthropology: Lévi-Strauss. Class limited to twenty students. This course discusses some fundamental topics in Lévi-Strauss's anthropology, namely, kinship, myth, and structure. Starting with alliance theory, it proceeds to examine the structural analysis of myths, its relationship to art, and the very notion of structure in Lévi-Strauss, relating it with models in other sciences that were its inspiration. M. da Cunha. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21403/33900. The Practice of Anthropology: Trends in Amazonian Ethnology. Class limited to twenty students. This course discusses some paradigmatic monographs on Lowland South American Indians. M. da Cunha. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21404/36000. The Practice of Anthropology: Great Excavations. In this class we approach the practice of archaeology through the medium of the excavation using a number of pivotal site reports and excavation summaries to examine the intellectual development of the field from the nineteenth century through today, traditions of scholarly representation, the methodological expansion of fieldwork, and the formation of archaeology's public persona. A. T. Smith. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21405/38000. The Practice of Anthropology: The Search for Culture. Class limited to twenty students. As a point of departure, we read and discuss Adam Kuper's provocative book, Culture: The Anthropologists' Account (Harvard University Press, 1999). Then, students report on other books and papers to stimulate our collective discussion of questions on the operational definitions of culture, cultural categories, and multiculturalism. We also explore the question of whether other animals, specifically chimpanzees, have culture. R. Tuttle. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21406/38300. The Practice of Anthropology: Celebrity and Science in Paleoanthropology. This seminar explores the balance among research, "show biz," big business, and politics in the careers of Louis, Mary, and Richard Leakey; Alan Walker; Donald Johanson; Jane Goodall; Dian Fossey; and Biruté Galdikas through films, taped interviews, autobiographies, biographies, pop publications, instructor's anecdotes, and samples of scientific writings. R. Tuttle. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21407/51800. The Practice of Anthropology: Decolonization, New Nations, and Great Traditions. Seeking perspective on contemporary scholarship on nation-states, this course examines American anthropological research on nations and nationalism since World War II. Why was the "new nations" project, energetic in the 1960s, followed by increasing regionalism and then, the 1980s by an explosion in "imagination" and "identity" theory? How does scholarship on nations connect to World War II, the Holocaust, decolonization, the rise and fall of the cold war, the increasing gap between rich and poor, and contemporary economic and cultural globalization? J. Kelly. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21600. Eye of the Beholder: Travel, Otherness, and Anthropology. If there are basic similarities in the ways travelers tend to perceive foreigners, can anthropology be any more than a sophisticated form of tourism? Would a naïve traveler to the United States today find Americans as odd as Marco Polo found the Mongol? Those are some of the questions this course addresses by way of a close reading of the eyewitness accounts of travelers of various backgrounds, from ancient to present times. M.-R. Trouillot. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21700. Japan: Anthropological Topics. In this course, we learn about Japan through anthropological writings and also try to understand the biases of these writings. We explore the earliest ethnographies of rural communities, studies of Japanese education, and corporate culture. We conclude with works on popular culture and postmodernity. The underlying theme of the course is how Japanese and Americans view each other and themselves and how both are stereotyped. M. Zivkovic. Summer.

21800/31200. Amazonian Local Knowledge. This course discusses, on Amazonian ethnographic grounds, a major current debate, namely the appropriation of local knowledge by the West. Following a general introduction to Amazonian ethnology, the course deals with the nature of shamanism and knowledge, as well as the process of generating and acquiring knowledge among some Amazonian societies. We then discuss issues around intellectual rights in relation to biological and knowledge prospection. M. da Cunha. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

21900/32400. Religion and Modernity in Film (=ANTH 21900/32400, CMST 24300/34300, HIST 26800/36800). This course considers the problem of how popular films in the United States, India, and Europe have represented the conventional religions' relation to modernity: the idea of film practices ("youth culture") as constituting a secular religion alternative or antagonistic to the conventional religions. We also examine the recuperation and transformation of conventional religiosity in modernist (especially patriotic and science fiction) films as a national theology ("civil religion"). One to two film screenings a week required. R. Inden. Winter.

22000/35500. The Anthropology of Development (=ANTH 22000/35500, ENST 22000). This course applies anthropological understanding to development programs in "underdeveloped" societies through case studies of food production, nutrition, and health care practices. Topics include development within the world system, the role of national and international development agencies, the cultural construction of well-being and deprivation, the impact of world market mechanisms and consumerism on underdevelopment, local resistance and engagement in development, the politics of underdevelopment, and future development. A. Kolata. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

22100. Anthropology of Science: Genetics and Reconfiguring Social Imaginaries. This course examines central debates surrounding the new genetic technologies: Are there novel conceptions of bodies and of selves enabled by this genetic technology? What kinds of debates has "cloning" raised about questions of "identity" and its relationship to DNA? What is the meaning of "race" when remade in genotypic and no longer a predominantly phenotypic form? What happens to our understandings of "Life" when it can be manufactured, and possibly "improved," through technological intervention? N. Abu El-Haj. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

22200/31900. Social Movements in Contemporary India (=ANTH 22200/31900, SASC 22200/31900). Class limited to twenty students. This course looks at a variety of activist movements in contemporary India as a collective lens to new debates in the public sphere that are redefining such longstanding social fields as caste, development, gender, and language. A. Appadurai. Spring.

22300. The Anthropology of Intellectuals (=ANTH 22300, HIST 26400). Although the term "intellectual" has had only a short history in the English language, a number of scholars have seen a vast array of societies as harboring something like an "intellectual class." In this course we grapple with various analytical definitions of "intellectuals." We then seek some rudimentary comparisons of the various kinds of cultural values and institutions that "intellectuals" have lived by. We devote the bulk of the course to studying varying conditions and characteristics of intellectuals in modern societies. C. Lomnitz, D. Boyer. Spring.

22600. Ethnic Violence in Global Perspective (=ANTH 22600, HMRT 22600, SALC 29100). This course examines legal, ethnographic, and journalistic materials from some major sites of ethnic violence in the last decade (e.g., Central Africa, Eastern Europe, and South Asia) to look for comparative patterns of cause and process and to explore the extent to which the broader forces of globalization play a role in these cases. Mechanisms of group identity and the role of state institutions in violence are given special attention. A. Appadurai. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

22700. Popular Musics of the African Diaspora. PQ: Specialized musical knowledge not required. This course examines African-inspired forms of music as part of a continually moving circuit of people, ideas, and objects. We look at theoretical and ethnographic writings on genres such as hip-hop, reggae, salsa, and highlife to understand the ways in which these forms of music are connected to local meanings of race and class and their role in the construction of transnational political and cultural formations. V. L. Brennan. Summer.

22801/33200. Diasporas: Asian Migration in the Modern World I (=ANTH 22801/33200, SALC 28300/49300). The United States is known as the land of immigrants. Yet, immigration policy today is a controversial issue as established immigrant groups seek to limit who is entitled to citizenship and who is entitled to work. This lecture/discussion course explores the thorny problems of migration, citizenship, and multiculturalism through the lens of Asians in the new face of America. C. Breckenridge. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

22802/33200. Diasporas: Asian Migration in the Modern World II (=ANTH 22802/33200, SALC 28300/49300). This course seeks to explore and debate the dynamics of postcolonial migration, citizenship, and identity through such key concepts as "diaspora," "globalization," "transnationalism," "capitalism," "circulation," and "mediation." It seeks to distinguish the new Asian diasporas of the late twentieth century from forms of colonial migration. Materials for this course focus both on the conditions of migration and its experience, and include historical writing, fiction, and film. C. Breckenridge. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

23101-23102-23103. Introduction to Latin American Civilization I, II, III (=ANTH 23101-23102-23103, HIST 16100-16200-16300, LTAM 16100-16200-16300/34600-34700-34800, SOSC 26100-26200-26300). PQ: This sequence meets the general education requirement in civilization studies. May be taken in sequence or individually. This three-quarter sequence introduces students to the history and cultures of Latin America, including Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean Islands. The first quarter examines the origins of civilizations in Latin America with a focus on the political, social, and cultural features of the major pre-Columbian civilizations of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec. The second quarter concludes with consideration of the Spanish and Portuguese conquest and the construction of colonial societies in Latin America. The third quarter addresses the evolution of colonial societies, the wars of independence, and the emergence of Latin American nation-states in the changing international context of the nineteenth century. It focuses on the twentieth century, with a special emphasis on the challenges of economic, political, and social development in the region. This course is offered in alternate years. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03. Staff. Winter.

23400/32500. Military Theory and Practice. Cultural theorists rarely center their attention on military matters. This course introduces classic military theories (Ibn Khaldun, Machiavelli, Clausewitz, Upton, Lyautey, Mahan, and Keegan) and their deployments. It also considers the impact of new technologies on conditions of possibility for coercion. Particular attention is given to anti-colonial and counter-insurgency campaign strategies (Gandhi, Fanon, Truman, and Rostow) and the rise and style of American power, including new concepts and practices of military intervention (e.g., "compellance" theory) being developed in the contemporary United States. J. Kelly. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

23700/33700. Capitalism, Colonialism, and Nationalism in the Pacific. This course compares colonial capitalist projects and their dialogic transformations up to present political dilemmas, with special attention given to Fiji, New Zealand, and Hawaii. We also focus on the labor diaspora, the fates of indigenous polities, and tensions in contemporary citizenship. General propositions about nationalism, "late" capitalism, global cultural flows, and postcolonial subject positions are juxtaposed with contemporary Pacific conflicts. J. Kelly. Spring.

23800. Introduction to Urban Anthropology. Themes of urban anthropology are examined within the context of the city of Chicago. Issues to be explored include race and class relations, art and music, the build environment, and globalization. Readings are drawn from fiction, sociology, geography, and anthropology. A significant component of the class focuses on ethnographic methods in an urban setting, and students have the opportunity to conduct individual research projects in Hyde Park and the surrounding communities. M. L. Peterson. Summer.

24101-24102. Introduction to the Civilization of South Asia I, II (=ANTH 24101-24102, HIST 10800-10900, SALC 20100-20200, SASC 20000-20100, SOSC 23000-23100). PQ: Must be taken in sequence. This course fulfills the general education requirement in civilization studies. Using a variety of disciplinary approaches, this sequence seeks to familiarize students with some of the important textual, institutional, and historical ideas and experiences that have constituted "civilization" in South Asia. Topics in the autumn quarter include European and American representations of South Asia, its place in world history as a "third world" or "underdeveloped" country; Gandhi and Nehru's visions of modernity; India's recent repositioning in the global economy as a consumer society; and its popular movements (i.e., women's, rural, tribal, urban slum, and Dalit). Topics in the winter quarter include urban and rural ways of life and the place of film and television in cultural life. R. Inden, Staff. Autumn, Winter.

24300/40300. Medicine and Culture (=ANTH 24300/40300, GNDR 24300/40300, HIPS 27300). This course examines diverse systems of thought and practice concerning health, illness, and the management of the body and person in everyday and ritual contexts. We seek to develop a framework for studying the cultural and historical constitution of healing practices, especially the evolution of Western biomedicine. J. Comaroff. Spring.

24400. Image and Fetish. This course discusses issues arising from visual representation, such as the role of image and iconography as a system. Examples are taken from diverse cultural contexts. M. da Cunha. Not offered 2001-2002; will be offered 2002-2003.

24500/40500. Indigenous Rights. We discuss the history of indigenous intellectual rights in Brazil, as well as major sources of conflict. M. da Cunha. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

24600. The Cultural Logic of Capitalism: From Industrial Production to the Information Economy. This course examines the transformation of American capitalist formations from early industrialization to the rise of the knowledge economy. Not an historical overview, the course analyzes capitalism anthropologically in order to disarticulate its key taken-for-granted material artifacts, processes and values. We investigate culturally specific notions like "rationality," science," and "discipline" that underpin the unique organizational form of capitalism. Further, we examine how industrial production models informed culturally specific notions of work, commodities, and 'the home." The course utilizes contemporary and archival sources drawn from both academic literature and business and popular media. J. Schoss. Summer.

24700/34700. Political Anthropology. This course is an exploration of major theoretical approaches to the study of political institutions, structures, and processes in different societies, with special reference to the nature of power, the role of symbolism and ideology in politics, and images of the state. J. L. Comaroff. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

24900. The Invention of the Americas. This course examines the material and symbolic transformations behind the changing images of this hemisphere. Utopian America, Conquest America, Plantation America, and Imperial America are among the many moments to be analyzed as the dividing lines within the hemisphere move from the Antilles to the mainland, from south to north of the Rio Grande, or from race to class. Readings range from Las Casas and Montaigne to Marti, Twain, and Todorov. M. R. Trouillot. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

25100/45100. Anthropology of the Body. This course explores a range of texts, both classic and more recent, that treat the body as the subject and object of social processes. Introductory lectures are followed by student presentations, the goal being to ground theoretical inquiry in ethnographic and historical materials. J. Comaroff. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

25300. An Anthropology of Sports. This course examines the rituals and meanings of spectator sports from around the world. Using ethnographic and popular accounts ranging from the Olympics to the X-Games, baseball in Cuba to cricket in India, soccer in the United Kingdom to basketball in the United Stares, we consider how athletes and fans, nations and states, empires and colonies participate in cultural and political negotiations of gender, nationalism, and colonialism. B. Eastman. Summer.

25900/39400. South Asia before the Buddha (=ANST 25900, ANTH 25900/39400). This is a study of the archaeology of South Asia that covers the period from the beginning of the Holocene (ca. 10,000 years ago) to the Early Historic (to ca. A.D. 500) or the time of Early Buddhism. We discuss the multiple transitions to agriculture across the subcontinent, the development and disappearance of urbanism in the Indus Valley, the establishment of the first empires, and the shifting mosaic of cultural and economic practices that constitutes early South Asia. K. Morrison. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

26000/46000. Mesoamerican Archeology. The prehistoric native cultures of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras are introduced using a framework of environmental analysis and cultural evolutionary theory. The course traces the development of aboriginal societies from the earliest settlements in the late Pleistocene until the Spanish conquest. Survey focuses include the Olmec, the Maya, the Teotihuacan, the Toltec, and the Aztec. A. Kolata. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

26100/46500. Ancient Celtic Societies (=ANST 26100, ANTH 26100/46500). This course explores the prehistoric societies of Iron Age "Celtic" Europe and their relationship to modern communities claiming Celtic ancestry. The course aims to impart an understanding of (1) the kinds of evidence available for investigating these ancient societies and how archaeologists interpret these data, (2) processes of change in culture and society during the Iron Age, and (3) how the legacy of Celtic societies has both persisted and been reinvented and manipulated in the modern world. M. Dietler. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

26300/36300. Andean Prehistory. This course is an in-depth examination of selected pre-Hispanic Andean societies and their evolution. It is not an exhaustive survey of South American prehistory. Rather, emphasis is placed on the formulation of general theoretical cultural models for Andean societies and their evolution through a series of empirical case studies. The central role of ethnohistorical research in understanding the dynamics and institutional bases of indigenous Andean civilization is a recurrent theme during the course. A. Kolata. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

26400/46200. Archaeology of Industry. Class limited to fifteen students. This course is an introduction to the social organization of material production and to the methods archaeologists use to make inferences about past societies from their material remains. Drawing on ethnographic, historical, and experimental evidence, the range of ways in which specific technical goals can be accomplished socially is examined. These core themes are developed through comparison of lithic, textile, metallurgical, and ceramic industries in different cultural and historical settings. N. Kouchoukos. Winter.

26500/46300. Archaeology and the Natural Sciences. PQ: Prior course work in archaeology; ANTH 26400/46200 helpful but not required. Class limited to fifteen students. This course is a survey of the state of the art in archaeometry and an inquiry into the epistemological and theoretical frameworks that guide translation of measurements into knowledge about the past. Topics include chronometry, stable isotope analysis, neutron activation analysis and other bulk compositional techniques, thin-section petrography, and metallography. N. Kouchoukos. Spring.

26700/36100. Nomads and Settlers. This lecture course examines the ancient and modern nomadic societies of Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and North Africa in comparative historical perspective, focusing on their interactions with sedentary polities, states, and empires. Emphasis is placed on the creation and transformation of social relationships in the process of this interaction and implications for analyses of the economy, political organization, and emergence and development of nomadic groups. N. Kouchoukos. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

26800/36800. Rise and Fall of Early Complex Societies. In this course we examine contemporary approaches to the problems associated with the rise and fall of early complex polities and undertake a comparative examination of five pivotal case studies: Sumer, Egypt, China, the Maya lowlands, and Teotihuacan. The course introduces the role of early complex societies in nineteenth- and twentieth-century social thought followed by an evaluation of the major theoretical frameworks archaeologists have constructed to explain the rise of states. A. T. Smith. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

26900/46900. Archaeological Data Sets. This course focuses on the methodological basis of archaeological data analysis. Its goals are twofold, first to provide students with an opportunity to examine research questions through the study of archaeological data, and second to allow students to evaluate evidential claims in light of analytical results. We consider data collection, sampling and statistical populations, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference. The course is built around computer applications and, thus, also provides an introduction to computer analysis, data encoding, and database structure. M. Lycett. Spring.

27001-27002-27003/37001-37002-37003. Introduction to Linguistics I, II, III (=ANTH 27001-27002-27003/37001-37002-37003, LING 20100-20200-20300/30100-30200-30300, SOSC 21700-21800-21900). PQ: Must be taken in sequence. This course is an introductory survey of methods, findings, and problems in areas of major interest within linguistics and of the relationship of linguistics to other disciplines. Topics include the biological basis of language, basic notions of syntax, semantics, pragmatics, basic syntactic typology of language, phonetics, phonology, morphology, language acquisition, linguistic variation, and linguistic change. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

27100. Cultural History of American English (=ANTH 27100, GSHU 22300). This course explores the emergence of the American English linguistic community within the context of North American and more global English-centered speech communities. Topics include American culture and the American culture of language, genres of textual monuments of it, as well as the dynamic intersections of institutional forces that have shaped, and are currently shaping, American English discursive practices, and linguistic structure. M. Silverstein. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

27200. Language in Culture and Society. This introductory course considers how we understand the social activity of speaking (and its equivalents): language as a system of signs to explain the descriptive (referential) content of speech; language as a socially shared organization of cognitive categories; the awareness of linguistic structure; theories of language use and function (linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics) to explain the social effectiveness of speech; and language among the semiotic systems of culture. M. Silverstein. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

27300. Language, Voice, and Gender. The role of language (as structure, as text, and as discursive practice) is considered in the sociocultural construction of gender as an aspect of social identity. A variety of scholarly and popular works is discussed in a cross-cultural framework of comparison, with a view to locating the cultural processes in specific cases. M. Silverstein. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

27400/37400. Language, Power, and Identity in Southeastern Europe: A Linguistics View of the Balkan Crisis (=ANTH 27400/37400, HUMA 27400, LING 27200/37200, SLAV 23000/33000). Language is a key issue in the articulation of ethnicity and the struggle for power in Southeastern Europe. This course familiarizes students with the linguistic histories and structures that have served as bases for the formation of modern Balkan ethnic identities that are being manipulated to shape current and future events. The course is informed by the instructor's thirty years of linguistic research in the Balkans as well as his experience as an adviser for the United Nations Protection Forces in Former Yugoslavia and as a consultant to the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Crisis Group, and other organizations. Course content may vary in response to on-going current events. V. Friedman. Winter.

27800. Culture and Cognition: Linguistic Relativity (=ANTH 27800, LING 27000). PQ: Knowledge of linguistics or cognitive studies helpful. Understanding language both as a systematic representation of the thinkable and as a systematic way of inhabiting a universe of social action, we review the ways modern social and cognitive scientists have dealt with the implications of the formal variability of language. We consider both cross-linguistic, cross-societal implications, and the significance of register-based social variability of language within linguistic communities. M. Silverstein. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

28000. Health and Demography in Archaeological Perspective. This course is a critical examination of the theoretical and methodological basis of demographic and biocultural inferences in archaeology. In the first half of the quarter we consider the sources of evidence and the analytical strategies employed by archaeologists and biological anthropologists to inform on human health status and population dynamics in the past. During the second half of the course we explore the conjunction of these varied lines of evidence in relation to specific research problems, including the long-term consequences of domestication, urbanization, and expanding exchange networks. M. Lycett. Spring.

28200. Archaeology of the Spanish Borderlands. Drawing on archaeological and ethnohistorical data, this course examines colonial and indigenous societies and their articulations on the northern periphery of New Spain between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries A.D. Although the scope of this course is geographically broad, including northern Mesoamerica and Spanish North America, its focus is topical and selective rather than chronological and exhaustive. We explore the ways European contact and colonization created new and locally variable social and ecological relationships that shaped both indigenous and colonial societies in these regions. M. Lycett. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

28400/38800. Bioarchaeology and the Human Skeleton. This course is designed to provide students in archaeology with a thorough understanding of bioanthropological and osteological methods used in the interpretation of prehistoric societies. The goal of this course is to introduce students to bioanthropological methods and theory. In particular, lab instruction stresses hands-on experience in analyzing the human skeleton; whereas, seminar classes integrate bioanthropological theory and application to specific cases throughout the world. Lab and seminar-format class meet weekly. M. C. Lozada. Winter.

29100/39100. Archaeobotanical Analysis. This class introduces the theory, method, and technique of a range of archaeobotanical analyses. We discuss field methods in archaeobotany, sampling, presentation, and interpretation of data; and specific applications such as crop processing studies, vegetation reconstruction, and fire history. Students combine written work with lab exercises in macrobotanical (seeds and wood) and microbotanical (pollen and charcoal) analysis. K. Morrison. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

29200. The Archaeology of Place. Archaeological practice centers on the study of "sites," locations subject to human modification in the past. In this course we critically discuss the conceptual and methodological underpinning of the notion "site," and examine the methods by which archaeologists make inferences about ancient places from contemporary material records. In particular, we consider site structural approaches to architectural form, the analysis of built environments, and the articulation between the occupational history of place and the culturally organized structure of landscapes. M. Lycett. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

29300. History, Ethnohistory, and Archaeology. During the quarter, we critically examine both the intellectual history of and the recent renewal of claims to historical perspectives in archaeology. The goals of this course are twofold: first, to examine the many uses of and understandings of history as evidentiary source, subject matter, and conceptual framework in the archaeological literature; and second, to assess the logic and methods used by researchers to incorporate documentary, ethnohistorical, and archaeological evidence. M. Lycett. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

29700. Readings in Anthropology. PQ: Consent of instructor and program chairman. Students are required to submit the College Reading and Research Course Form. At the discretion of the instructor, this course is available for either Pass or letter grading. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

29900. Preparation of Bachelor's Essay. PQ: Consent of instructor and program chairman. Students are required to submit the College Reading and Research Course Form. At the discretion of the instructor, this course is available for either Pass or letter grading. For honors requirements, consult the honors section under Program Requirements. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

30500. Globalization, Health, and Environment: The Predicament of Asia (=ANTH 30500, ENST 25400, SALC 31100). The twenty-first century inherits global threats of infection, disease, and environmental degradation. In this course, we examine global issues of health and the environment drawing on the case of South Asia. We ask: How might minority rights and democratic forms conflict with the interests of the state and transnational corporations? How might debates on health address the environmental reach of global capital? When does environmental criticism affect matters of race, sexuality, and gender? What constitutes "public" regulation of health and community in the era of globalization? How do environmental and health activists press us to reconstitute categories for understanding justice, agency, and power? We seek to understand global changes in historical, as well as contemporary, perspectives. C. Breckenridge. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

31300. The African Diaspora: Rethinking the African Diaspora (=AFAM 20300, ANTH 31300). This course focuses on the "African" experience in the New World, particularly in Brazil, Haiti, Cuba, Trinidad, and North America. Themes of acculturation, syncretism, adaptation, and resistance in the classic diaspora literature are critically reevaluated in light of current issues in cultural studies: hegemony and the politics of African identity, the symbolic construction (and deconstruction) of "origins"; the rhetoric of racial and sexual difference; black nationalist ideologies; and the material conditions of imagined communities. A. Apter. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

31500. Ideology, Culture, and Sexuality. This course examines the cultural politics of identity and difference in the United States and Australia. Through a comparative analysis, the course seeks to demonstrate both the particularities of identity politics, including their specific national and (post) colonial contexts, and the global and transnational economic conditions and discourses in which they are situated and emerge. Special attention is paid to the differing challenges and problems that racial and sexual social movements and indigenous and ethnonationalisms pose to current constructions of nationalism. Topics are explored through theoretical, ethnographic, popular, and film and video texts. E. Povinelli. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

31800. Religious Movements of Native North America. New Agers essentialize and romanticize Native American religions. Religious beliefs and practices are assumed to be primordial, eternal, and invariable. However, a closer examination reveals that Native American religions are highly dynamic and adaptive, ever reactive to internal pressure and external circumstances. Perhaps the most dramatic forms of religious change are the transformations that anthropologists recognize as nativistic or revitalization movements. We examine classic accounts of the Ghost Dance, often considered to be the prototypical Native American religious movement; the Handsome Lake Religion among the Senecas; and other Native American religious movements. R. Fogelson. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

32001. Topics on Native Americans: Federal Indian Law. This course examines the culture, history, and politics of federal Indian law and the policy that informs it. Topics vary and have included examination of the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, the Indian Child Welfare Act, the Indian Civil Rights Act, and the legal context of American Indian gaming. A. T. Straus. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

32002. Topics on Native America: Native Americans in Cities. This course examines Native American communities in urban areas, especially Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, Minneapolis, Oakland, and Los Angeles. By looking at history, institutions, leadership, demography, political issues, ethnic identity, and world view, students develop an understanding of the meaning, function, and value of "community" for Native Americans in cities. A. T. Straus. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

32003. Topics on Native Americans: Black Indians. R. Fogelson, A. T. Straus. Autumn.

33101-33102. North American Indians I, II. PQ: Consent of instructor. Must be taken in sequence. This course is a comprehensive review of Native American cultural history, including consideration of intellectual context, prehistory, ethnology, history, and the contemporary situation. The last half of the third quarter is devoted to a mutually agreed-on topic in which students pursue individual research, the results of which are presented in seminar format. R. Fogelson. Autumn, Winter.

33400. Ethnographic Writing: Narrative and Experimental Ethnography. PQ: Third- or fourth-year standing and consent of instructor. This is a study of ethnography as a problem of narration and employment, based mainly on the study of the reflexive ethnographies written in the last fifteen years under the epistemological and methodological pressures of phenomenology, critical theory, interpretivism, and postmodernism. Critical comparison is made to the classic ethnographies and their commitment to "theory building" and the "archival function." We mainly consider ethnographies that have won the Victor Turner Prize for Ethnographic Writing of the American Anthropological Association over the last decade. J. Fernandez. Spring.

34301. Psychological Anthropology: Historical Perspectives on Psychological Anthropology (=ANTH 34301, HUDV 34201). This course considers the logical status of psychological anthropology as an anthropological discipline. Attention is paid to the "prehistoric" roots of psychological discipline, as well as the influence of psychoanalysis on anthropology. The "culture and personality" movement is evaluated as a movement. The course concludes with a discussion of trends and trending in modern psychological anthropology. R. Fogelson. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

34302. Psychological Anthropology: Issues of Self, Person, and Identity (=ANTH 34302, HUDV 34202). R. Fogelson. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

34401-34402. Fourth World Religions I, II (=ANTH 34401-34402, HUDV 33500-1,-2). PQ: Consent of instructor. Must be taken in sequence. A theoretical and substantive survey of the religions of "primitive" peoples. Topics include the notion of primitivism, a history of the anthropological study of religion, minimal definitions of religion, religious experience, dreams, myths, ritual, divination, theories of magic, shamanism, curing, conceptions of power, and dynamics of religious change. R. Fogelson. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

34501-34502. Anthropology of Museums (=ANTH 34501-34502, SOSC 34500-1,-2). PQ: Advanced standing and consent of instructor. This course considers museums from a variety of perspectives: as cultural phenomena with particular histories and structures and functions; as sites of entertainment and embodiments of popular culture, as institutions for cultural transmission, as total institutions with distinctive world views and ideologies, and as battleground for past and present cultural wars. We consider the Columbian Exposition, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, the image and imagination of African-American culture as presented in local museums, and museums as history and memorials as exemplified by Holocaust exhibitions. Several on-site visits to Chicago-area museums required. R. Fogelson, M. Fred. Winter, Spring.

35300. The Millennium, Revisited. PQ: Third- or fourth-year standing and consent of instructor. This course is an exploration of the phenomenon of the millennium, as approached from the perspectives of history, anthropology, and social theory. Readings range from the classical literature on "cargo cults" and millennarian movements to recent treatments of modernity and the politics of time. We focus in particular on the relevance of such works to the analysis of contemporary responses to the year 2000. In addition to participating in discussion of the readings, students reflect on the question: what forms, if any, does "millennarianism" take today? D. Rutherford. Winter.

36200. Ceramic Analysis for Archaeologists. PQ: Consent of instructor. This course introduces students to the theoretical foundations and analytical techniques that allow archaeologists to use ceramics to make inferences about ancient societies. Ethnographic, experimental, and physical science approaches are explored to develop a realistic, integrated understanding of the nature of ceramics as a form of material culture and to assess both the kinds of interpretations of ancient people that can plausibly be made on the basis of their pottery and which techniques and research strategies may best serve to obtain useful information. Practical training in the use of the ceramic laboratories is included. M. Dietler. Spring.

36400. Archaeological Field Studies: Southwestern Archaeology. PQ: Must be taken concurrently with ANTH 36500. Consent of instructor. Class limited to sixteen students. Students participate directly in an ongoing scientific research project while pursuing studies in archaeological theory, method, and data collection. These courses are set in the context of a long-term research project investigating the organization and transformation of indigenous and colonial societies in the late prehistoric and early historic Middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. Current archaeological, historical, and paleoenvironmental research in the North American Southwest and beyond are introduced through direct field experience and evening seminars and lectures. M. Lycett. Summer.

36500. Archaeological Field Studies: Design and Method. PQ: Must be taken concurrently with ANTH 36400. Consent of instructor. Class limited to sixteen students. This course provides practical experience in the design and implementation of archaeological field work and basic laboratory procedures and an introduction to the analysis of chipped stone, ceramic, floral, and faunal materials recovered from archaeological contexts. Through field and lab work, students do archaeological research, including surface documentation, transit mapping, excavation, artifact processing, and preliminary artifact analysis. They may pursue a directed research project under the guidance of the instructor. M. Lycett. Summer.

36900. Commerce and Culture: The Indian Ocean Trade in Archaeological Perspective (=ANST 26900, ANTH 36900). The Indian Ocean has been host to extensive networks of exchange and cultural interaction for at least the last 2,000 years. These far-flung connections both grew out of and partly transformed local societies and economies; we thus need to address these networks of "commerce and culture" to understand such processes as urbanism, the emergence of money, markets, and commercial production and the development and expansion of structures of state power and their interpenetration with local and regional economies. In this course we focus primarily on the South Asian subcontinent, but we also consider its relationships with the Mediterranean, East Africa, the Arabian peninsula, and island Southeast Asia. K. Morrison. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

37201-37202. Language in Culture I, II (=ANTH 37201-37202, GSHU 35400-35500, LING 31100-31200, PSYC 47000-47100). PQ: Consent of instructor. Must be taken in sequence. This two-quarter course presents the major issues in linguistics of anthropological interest, including, in the first half, the formal structure of semiotic systems, the ethnographically crucial incorporation of linguistic forms into cultural systems, and the methods for empirical investigation of "functional" semiotic structure and history. The second half of the sequence takes up basic concepts in sociolinguistics and their critique, linguistic analysis of publics, performance and ritual, and language ideologies, among other topics. Staff, Autumn; S. Gal, Winter.

37301. Phonology I (=ANTH 37301, LING 20800/30800). PQ: LING 20100, 20200, 20300, or 20600; or equivalent. This is an introduction to general principles of phonology, with emphasis on nongenerative theory. Staff. Winter.

37302. Phonology II (=ANTH 37302, LING 20900/30900). PQ: LING 20800. The principles of generative phonology are introduced and studied in detail, emphasizing the role of formalism and abstractness in phonological analysis. The emphasis is on the Sound Pattern of English theory, with brief discussion of more recent autosegmental and metrical models. Staff. Spring.

37400. Morphology (=ANTH 37400, LING 21000/31000). This course deals with linguistic structure and patterning beyond the phonological level, focusing on analysis of grammatical and formal oppositions, and their structural relationships and interrelationships (morphophonology). A. Dahlstrom. Spring.

37700. Phonetics (=ANTH 37700, LING 20600/30600). PQ: LING 20100, 20200, or 20300; or consent of instructor. This is an introduction to the study of speech sounds. Speech sounds are described with respect to their articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual structures. There are lab exercises both in phonetic transcription and in the acoustic analysis of speech sounds. Staff. Autumn.

37801. Syntax I (=ANTH 37801, LING 20400/30400). PQ: LING 20100, 20200, or 20300; or equivalent. This course is devoted to detailed study of the major syntactic phenomena of English, combined with exposition and critical evaluation of the principal accounts of phenomena proposed by transformational grammarians and the theoretical frameworks within which those accounts are developed. Class discussion focuses on ideas advanced in or arising out of transformational grammar with regard to the relation between syntax and semantics and the psychological status of linguistic analyses. Staff. Autumn.

37802. Syntax II (=ANTH 37802, LING 20500/30500). PQ: LING 20400 or consent of instructor. The purpose of this course is to bring students to the point where they are able to follow syntactic articles in contemporary journals. Staff. Spring.

38100. Evolution of the Hominoidea (=ANTH 38100, EVOL 38100). PQ: Third- or fourth-year standing and consent of instructor. This course carries 200 units of credit. A detailed consideration of the fossil record and the phylogeny of Hominidae and collateral taxa of the Hominoidea is based up-on studies of casts and comparative primate osteology. R. Tuttle. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.

38200. Comparative Primate Morphology (=ANTH 38200, EVOL 38200). PQ: Consent of instructor. This course carries 200 units of credit. Functional morphology of locomotor, alimentary, and reproductive systems in primates is studied. Dissections are performed on monkeys and apes. R. Tuttle. Spring.

38600. Apes and Human Evolution (=ANTH 38600, EVOL 38600, HIPS 23700). A critical examination of the ways in which data on the behavior, morphology and genetics of apes have been used to elucidate human evolution, with particular emphasis on bipedalism, hunting, meat-eating, tool behavior, food sharing, cognitive ability, language, self-awareness, and sociability. Visits to local zoos, films, and demonstrations with casts of fossils and skeletons required. R. Tuttle. Summer.