History, Philosophy, and
Director: Robert J. Richards,
SS 205, 702-8391
Social Studies of Science
and Medicine (HIPS)
Secretary: Betty Mackevich, SS 207, 702-8391
Program of Study
The Bachelor of Arts program in the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science and Medicine (HIPS) is designed for College students interested in studying science in terms of its historical development, conceptual structure, and social role. Students in the program must do sufficient work in one or more sciences to acquire a sound foundation for studying the nature of science. After securing this basis, they are expected to gain an understanding of how science arose and how the content of scientific thought has changed and is changing, because of both its own internal dynamic and its interaction with the larger society in which it is embedded.
The HIPS program is designed to make possible the study of a wide range of social, historical, and conceptual issues relating to science. Students completing the program follow a number of different careers. Some pursue graduate study in the history and philosophy of science or in some field of science. Others find the program valuable preparation for the study of medicine, law, public policy, or science journalism. More generally, the goal of the program is to teach students to reasonably interpret and evaluate science and science policy. Some students choose to construct a degree program combining the requirements for the HIPS concentration with those for a concentration in the physical or biological sciences. Others, having met the HIPS program requirements, use electives to broaden their liberal arts education.
HIPS Sponsor. The Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine sponsors the HIPS program. Further information can be obtained in the center's office (SS 207).
Elements of the Curriculum. The curriculum of the program contains five principal elements:
1. The Foundation. All HIPS concentrators must:
a. complete the general education requirement for the biological sciences with Core Biology (Biological Sciences 10100) plus a topics course (Biological Sciences 10101-15199), or the first two courses of a Fundamental Sequence (Biological Sciences 20180s or 20190s), or a score of 5 on the AP biology test;
b. complete the general education requirement in the physical sciences with a physics sequence (Physics 12100-12200 or its equivalent), a chemistry sequence (Chemistry 11100-11200 or 12100-12200), or a score of 5 on the AP chemistry or physics test;
c. take a mathematics sequence (Mathematics 13100-13200 or higher), or have earned a score of 5 on the AP Calculus BC test; and
d. take the three-quarter sequence surveying the growth of science in Western civilization: Science, Culture, and Society in Western Civilization (History 17300-17400-17500).
2. Advanced Science. In addition to the science courses normally taken as part of the general education requirements, students are expected to take three courses in science or mathematics beyond the introductory level. They select these advanced courses according to their special aims, their area of concentration, and the subject of the bachelor's thesis.
3. Areas of Concentration. All students in the program determine a particular major area of concentration in the history, philosophy, ethics, and/or social contexts of science and medicine. In consultation with the program director and student adviser, they select five courses to constitute this concentration area. For example, some students may be particularly interested in the epistemological issues related to the growth of science; others may be especially concerned with the intellectual and social interactions between changing scientific knowledge and institutions, on the one hand, and evolving social institutions, on the other; a third group may wish to emphasize the moral and political problems attending the employment of technology generated by advances in science.
4. Tutorials. Each student takes two tutorial courses, usually early in his or her program. These tutorials are small courses (from three to ten students) that emphasize discussion and writing. Courses for the coming year are listed in the HIPS office.
5. Bachelor's Thesis and Senior Seminar. Each student completes the program with a bachelor's thesis (HIPS 29900). Students should discuss their proposal for their bachelor's thesis in the spring of their third year with the program director. In consultation with the program director, students then sign up for a reading and research course with an appropriate faculty member. This research course should lead to a thesis integrating the students' academic studies and bringing them to bear on a significant question related to some historical, conceptual, ethical, or social aspect of science. During the senior year, students also enroll in a designated one-quarter seminar (HIPS 29800) that deals with general aspects of history, philosophy, and social studies of science.
Summary of Requirements
General HIST 17300-17400-17500
Education CHEM 11100-11200 or higher,
or PHYS 12100-12200 or higher
MATH 13100-13200 or higher
Concentration 1 CHEM 11300 or higher,
or PHYS 12300 or higher
1 MATH 13300 or higher
3 courses in science or math
beyond the introductory level
5 courses in major area of concentration
2 HIPS 29400 to 29600 (tutorial courses)
1 HIPS 29800 (senior seminar)
1 HIPS 29900 (bachelor's thesis)
Credit may be granted by examination.
Honors. Students who meet the following criteria are considered for graduation with special honors: (1) overall grade point average of 3.3 or better, (2) completion of a bachelor's thesis of A quality, and (3) a majority vote by the faculty in favor of honors.
Admission. To be admitted, students should have completed at least two of the four foundation course sequences listed in the preceding section and should have maintained a 3.2 grade point average or better in previous course work. Admission is completed when students have taken the remaining foundation courses and have formulated a plan of study; this is normally done prior to the third year. Application for admission should be made to the director of the program, who advises students about the requirements, arranges a preliminary plan of study, and discusses scheduling conflicts and special cases. Thereafter, a student chooses, in consultation with the director, a permanent adviser from the staff.
Grading. Courses may be taken on a P/N or P/F basis except that students concentrating in HIPS must receive letter grades in all courses aimed at meeting the requirements of the degree program.
Advisers. The faculty for the HIPS program is drawn from many parts of the University. The following have direct responsibility for admitting students, formulating curriculum, and advising.
Jean Comaroff, Bernard E. and Ellen C. Sunny Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Anthropology; Committees on Human Nutrition & Nutritional Biology and African & African-American Studies; Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Science & Medicine, and the College; Chairman, Department of Anthropology
Arnold I. Davidson, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Committees on the Conceptual & Historical Studies of Science and General Studies in the Humanities, and the College
Daniel Garber, Lawrence Kimpton Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Philosophy, Committee on the Conceptual & Historical Studies of Science, and the College; Chairman, Committee on the Conceptual & Historical Studies of Science; Associate Provost of the University
Ann Dudley Goldblatt, Lecturer, Humanities and Social Sciences Collegiate Divisions and Department of Medicine; Assistant Director, MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics
ROGER HART, Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of History
ADRIAN JOHNS, Associate Professor, Department of History
JOHN LANTOS, Associate Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine; Section Chief, General Pediatrics; Associate Director, MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics
Robert J. Richards, Professor, Departments of History, Philosophy, and Psychology, and the College; Director, Program in History, Philosophy, & Social Studies of Science & Medicine
Lainie Ross, M.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics; Assistant Director, MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics
George W. Stocking, Jr., Stein-Freiler Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Anthropology and Committee on the Conceptual & Historical Studies of Science
Noel M. Swerdlow, Professor, Departments of Astronomy & Astrophysics and History, Committee on the Conceptual & Historical Studies of Science, and the College
William Wimsatt, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Committees on the Conceptual & Historical Studies of Science, Evolutionary Biology, and General Studies in the Humanities, Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, and the College
ALISON WINTER, Associate Professor, Department of History
Examples of Area Concentrations and Sample Curricula for Those Areas. The following are meant to illustrate the kinds of concentrations students might choose. They are not prescriptive, only suggestive. Students should consult with the director of the program and examine this course catalog and the quarterly Time Schedules for the particular courses that might constitute their area of concentration.
History and Philosophy of Biological Science
HIPS 22700. Philosophy of Biology
HIPS 23600. History and Theory of Human Evolution
HIPS 23700. Apes and Human Evolution
HIPS 23900. Biological and Cultural Evolution
HIPS 25800. Darwin's Romantic Biology
Philosophy of Science
HIPS 22000. Philosophy of Science
HIPS 22300. Philosophy of Social Sciences
HIPS 22700. Philosophy of Biology
HIPS 24900. Natural Philosophy, 1200-1800
HIPS 25400. Philosophy of Mind and Science Fiction
History of Medicine and Medical Ethics
HIPS 14900. History of Medicine Since the Renaissance
HIPS 15000. Science and Medicine Today
HIPS 21000. Introduction to Ethics
HIPS 26600. Ethical Issues in Biology and Medicine
HIPS 27300. Medicine and Culture
For descriptions of the following courses, consult the relevant concentration sections of the catalog.
HIST 17300-17400-17500. Science, Culture, and Society in Western Civilization I, II, III. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.
HIPS 29400. Tutorial. Staff. Autumn.
HIPS 29500. Tutorial. Staff. Winter.
HIPS 29600. Tutorial. Staff. Spring.
Seminar and Research
HIPS 29700. Readings and Research in History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science and Medicine. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.
HIPS 29800. Senior Seminar: My Favorite Readings in the History and Philosophy of Science. A. Winter. Winter.
HIPS 29900. Bachelor's Thesis. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.
Courses other than those included in the preceding sample curricula or in the list that follows may be appropriate concentration courses; consult the quarterly Time Schedules for possible additions.
HIPS 14900. History of Medicine since the Renaissance (=HIST
14900). A. Winter. Spring.
HIPS 15000. Science and Medicine Today (=HIST 15000). A.
HIPS 20100. Introduction to Philosophy of Science (=PHIL
20000). L. Snyder. Winter
HIPS 20300. Scientific and Technological Change (=CHSS 42300,
PHIL 30300). W. Wimsatt. Spring.
HIPS 20400. Philosophy of Mind (=PHIL 23500). M.
Aydede. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 20700. Elementary Logic (=CHSS 33500, PHIL 30000).
T. Cohen. Autumn.
HIPS 20800. Evolutionary Processes (=BIOS 29306, CHSS 34800,
ECEV 31000, EVOL 31000). L. Van Valen. Autumn.
HIPS 21000. Introduction to Ethics (=GSHU 29200, PHIL 21000).
M. Green. Autumn.
HIPS 21100. The Practice of Anthropology: Celebrity and
Science in Paleoanthropology (=ANTH 21406/38300). R. Tuttle. Winter.
HIPS 21200. Science and World History (=HIST 14800). R.
HIPS 21300. Chinese Medicine: Interdisciplinary Studies
(=HIST 24200, CHIN 24200/34200, CHSS 30400, EALC 24200). PQ: Knowledge
of Chinese not required. R. Hart. Spring.
HIPS 21400. Introduction to Medical Ethics (=BIOS 29281).
L. Ross. Winter.
HIPS 21500. Cultural Evolution and Dimensions of Globalization
(=BIOS 02800, BPRO 24000, CHSS 35000, LING 11200, NCDV 27500, PHIL 32600). S.
Mufwene, J. Sadock, W. Wimsatt, Staff. Winter. Not offered 2001-02; will be
HIPS 22000. Philosophy of Science (=CHSS 33300, PHIL 32000).
D. Garber. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 22300. Philosophy of the Social Sciences (=CHSS 37700,
GSHU 32900, PHIL 32900). W. Wimsatt. Autumn.
HIPS 22700. Philosophy of Biology (=CHSS 37600, PHIL 32700).
W. Wimsatt. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 23000. The Organization of Knowledge (=BPRO 23500).
W. Sterner, H. Sinaiko, W. Booth. PQ: Fourth-year standing. Not offered
2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 23100. History of Sexuality after Foucault (=CHSS 32600,
PHIL 31800). A. Davidson. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 23400. Is Development Sustainable? (=BPRO 23400, ENST
24400, NCDV 27300, PBPL 24400, PLSC 21200). PQ: Open to fourth-year students
with no prior Environmental Studies courses. T. Steck, Staff. Spring.
HIPS 23600. Classical Readings in Anthropology: History
and Theory of Human Evolution (=ANTH 21102/38400, EVOL 38400). R. Tuttle.
HIPS 23700. Apes and Human Evolution (=ANTH 38600, EVOL
38600). R. Tuttle. Summer.
HIPS 23900. Biological and Cultural Evolution
(=BPRO 29286, CHSS 37900, NCDV 23900, PHIL 32500). This course is offered
in alternate years. S. Mufwene, J. Sadock, Staff, W. Wimsatt. Autumn.
HIPS 24000. Evolution of Hominoidea (=ANTH 38100, EVOL 38100).
R. Tuttle. PQ: Third- or fourth-year standing and consent of the instructor.
Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 24200. Science and Religion (=BPRO 24100, PHIL 24500).
PQ: Fourth-year standing. D. Garber, J. Kraemer, R. Perlman. Not offered
2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 24300. Foucault and the History of Sexuality (=PHIL
34800). PQ: Prior philosophy course or consent of instructor. A.
HIPS 24800. Gender in History of Science, Technology, and
Medicine (=HIST 25100/35100). A. Winter. Winter.
HIPS 24900. Natural Philosophy, 1200-1800 (=HIST 24900/34900).
A. Johns. Winter.
HIPS 25000. History of Philosophy I: Ancient Philosophy
(=ANST 25000, PHIL 25000). R. Barney. Winter.
HIPS 25100. Anthropology as Science: Genetics and Reconfiguring
Social Imaginaries (=ANTH 22100). N. Abu-El-Ahaj. Not offered 2001-02;
will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 25400. Philosophy of Mind and Science Fiction (=GSHU
29700, PHIL 23400). W. Wimsatt. Spring.
HIPS 25600. History of Statistics (=CHSS 32900, STAT 26700/36700).
PQ: Prior statistics course. S. Stigler. Spring.
HIPS 25900. Darwinian Medicine (=BIOS 22257). R.
Perlman, W. Wimsatt. Autumn.
HIPS 26400. The Book in Early Modern Europe (=HIST 22200/32200).
A. Johns. Spring.
HIPS 26600. Ethical Issues in Biology and Medicine (=BIOS
29296). M. Mahowald. Autumn.
HIPS 26700. Intellectual Property and Piracy from Guttenberg
to Gates (=HIST 23000/33000). A. Johns. Spring.
HIPS 27100. Sciences of Mind and Society from French Revolution
to Great War (=HIST 22600/32600). A. Winter. Spring.
HIPS 27300. Medicine and Culture (=ANTH 24300/40300, GNDR
24300/40300). J. Comaroff. Spring.
HIPS 27600. German Romanticism: Philosophy, Literature,
and Science I (=CHSS 30000, GRMN 47800, HIST 25400, PHIL 30700). PQ:
Advanced standing. R. Richards. Autumn.
HIPS 27700. German Romanticism: Philosophy, Literature,
and Science II (=CHSS 30100, GRMN 47900, HIST 25500, PHIL 30800). PQ:
Advanced standing. R. Richards. Winter.
HIPS 28000. General History of Astronomy (=ASTR 38100, CHSS
35300). N. Swerdlow. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered 2002-03.
HIPS 28500. Ptolemy's Astronomy and Other Sciences (=ASTR
38300, CHSS 38600). N. Swerdlow. Not offered 2001-02; will be offered
HIPS 28501. Neurology and Kant's Theory of Knowledge (=BIOS
29283). S. Schulman. Autumn, Spring.
HIPS 28600. History of Cosmology (=ASTR 38600, CHSS 38800).
PQ: Consent of instructor. N. Swerdlow. Winter.
HIPS 28900. Critical Studies: The Disunity of Science, Language,
and Culture (=CHSS 33900, HIST 25300/35300). R. Hart. Winter.