First-year general education courses engage students in the pleasure and challenge of humanistic works through the close reading of literary, historical, and philosophical texts. These are not survey courses; rather, they work to establish methods for appreciating and analyzing the meaning and power of exemplary texts. The class discussions and the writing assignments are based on textual analysis. The courses concentrate on writing skills by including special tutorial sessions devoted to the students' writing. These courses meet the general education requirements in the interpretation of historical, literary, and philosophical texts.

The 20000-level Collegiate courses in Humanities seek to extend humanistic inquiry beyond the scope of the general education requirements. A few of them also serve as parts of special degree programs. All of these courses are open as electives to students from any Collegiate Division.


General Education Sequences

11000-11100-11200. Readings in World Literature. This sequence is available as either a two-quarter sequence (autumn, winter; or winter, spring) or a three-quarter sequence (autumn, winter, spring). This sequence examines the relationship between the individual and society in literary texts from across the globe. Texts studied range from Dante to Toni Morrison, from Flaubert to James Baldwin, from Kafka to Osamu Dazai and Nadine Gordimer. In the first quarter, the class surveys prose works from Plato to the 1980s, in which individuals learn (or struggle) to situate themselves in a society that is often unaccepting of individuality. The theme for this quarter is alienation. In the second quarter, students consider the problem of evil through an analysis of authors as diverse as Shakespeare, Conrad, Dostoevsky, and Lorca. Students wishing to take the third quarter of this sequence in the spring choose among a selection of topics (such as "Myth and Reason," "Gender and Literature," or "Poetry"). Writing is an important component of the sequence; students work closely with a writing tutor and participate in weekly writing workshops. Staff. Autumn, Winter; Winter, Spring; Autumn, Winter, Spring.

11500-11600-11700. Philosophical Perspectives on the Humanities. This sequence studies philosophy both as an ongoing series of arguments, mainly, but not exclusively, concerning ethics and knowledge, and as a discipline interacting with and responding to developments in the natural sciences, history, and literature. Papers are assigned throughout the course to help students develop their writing and reasoning skills. Readings may vary slightly from section to section, although the year is organized around several common themes. The autumn quarter focuses on Greek conceptions of ethics and epistemology, primarily through analysis of Platonic dialogues, but readings may also come from Aristotle and the Greek dramatists. The winter quarter focuses on questions and challenges raised by the intellectual revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with readings from Montaigne, Bacon, Descartes, Pascal, Galileo, and Shakespeare. The spring quarter focuses on modern moral philosophy, and on the relation of philosophy to literature, with readings from Hume, Kant, and Diderot, among others. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

12000-12100-12200. Greek Thought and Literature. This sequence is available as either a three-quarter sequence (autumn, winter, spring) or a two-quarter sequence (autumn, winter). It approaches its subject matter generically and historically. First, it offers an introduction to humanistic inquiry in three broadly defined areas: history, philosophy, and imaginative literature. The works of Herodotus and Thucydides are studied as examples of historiography; the dialogues of Plato exemplify philosophy; and imaginative literature is exemplified by Homer's epic poetry, the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the comedies of Aristophanes. Second, the sequence offers an introduction to ancient Greek culture as a system of related activities and attitudes. Beginning with Homer, it aims at understanding what ancient works meant to their original authors and audiences and how they reflect the specific conditions of their composition. The course is not conceived of as a prerequisite for a prospective classics major; it is meant to be a course in humanities, sharing with other general education courses in the humanities an interest in exploring the spirit of human greatness. Staff. Autumn, Winter; Autumn, Winter, Spring.

12300-12400-12500. Human Being and Citizen. "Who is a knower of such excellence, of a human being and of a citizen?" As both human beings and citizens, we are concerned to discover what it means to be an excellent human being and an excellent citizen, and to learn what a just community is. This course seeks to explore these questions and related matters, and to examine critically our opinions about them. To this end, we read closely and discuss critically seminal works of the Western tradition, selected partly because they richly reveal the central questions and partly because, read together, they force us to consider different and competing ways of asking and answering questions about human and civic excellence. The diverse and even competing excellencies of which we are capable, to which we are drawn, and among which we may have to choose, make it impossible for us to approach these great writings as detached or indifferent spectators, especially as these books are both the originators and the most exacting critics of our common opinions: opinions by which we explicitly or implicitly guide our lives. Thus we seek not only an understanding of certain enduring questions, but also a deeper appreciation of who we are, here and now, all in the service of a more thoughtful consideration of our lives as human beings and citizens. This course also aims to cultivate the liberating skills of careful reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The reading list for 2000-01 is Plato, Apology of Socrates; Homer, Iliad; Genesis; Sophocles, Oedipus; Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics; Gospel According to St. Matthew; Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part I; selected lyric poems and American documents; Kant, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals; Tolstoy, War and Peace. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

14000-14100-14200. Reading Cultures: Collection, Travel, Exchange. Introducing students to methods of literary, visual, and social analysis, this course addresses the formation and transformation of cultures across a broad chronological and geographic field. Our objects of study range from the Renaissance epic to contemporary film, the fairy tale to the museum. Hardly presuming that we know definitively what "culture" means, we examine paradigms of reading within which the very idea of culture emerged and changed. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

14000. Reading Cultures: Collection. This quarter focuses on the way both objects and stories are selected and rearranged to produce cultural identities. We examine exhibition practices of the past and present, including the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition and the University's own Oriental Institute. We read Ovid's Metamorphoses, The Arabian Nights, and collections of African-American folk tales. We conclude by considering modernist modes of fragmentation and reconstellation in Cubism, T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land, and Orson Welles' Citizen Kane.

14100. Reading Cultures: Travel. Focusing on the literary conventions of cross-cultural encounter, this quarter concentrates on how individual subjects are formed and transformed through narrative. We investigate both the longing to travel and the trails of displacement. We read several forms of travel literature, from the Renaissance to the present, including Columbus' Diario, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African, Basho's Narrow Road to the Deep North, and contemporary tourist literature.

14200. Reading Cultures: Exchange. This quarter works toward understanding the relation (in the modern and post-modern periods) between economic development and processes of cultural transformation. We examine literary and visual texts that celebrate and criticize modernization and urbanization. Beginning with Baudelaire's response to Paris in his prose poems, we then concentrate on novels that address economic, social, and cultural change in the 1930s, including Abdelrahman Munif's Cities of Salt and Richard Wright's Native Son. As the quarter concludes, students develop projects that investigate the urban fabric of Chicago itself.

16000-16100-16200. Media Aesthetics: Image, Sound, Text. This three-quarter sequence introduces students to the skills, materials, and relationships of the various disciplines of the Humanities, including literary and language study, philosophy, rhetoric, history, and the arts. Its particular emphasis falls on issues in aesthetics and especially on the problem of "the medium." For the purposes of this course, we construe "aesthetics" rather broadly: as a study in sensory perception, as a study in value, as a study in the stylistic and formal properties of artistic products. "Medium," too, will be understood along a spectrum of meanings that range (in Aristotle's terms) from the "material cause" of art (stone for sculpture, sounds for music, words for poetry) to the "instrumental cause" (the apparatus of writing or printing, film, the broadcast media, the Internet). Of course, all experience of the arts involves a medium; our aim is to call particular attention to that involvement.

The vehicle of communication conditions aesthetic experience—mediates between producers and receivers—and thus our larger questions will include some of the following: What is the relation between media and kinds of art? What constitutes a medium? Can artistic media be distinguished in a rigorous and systematic way from non-artistic media? What, for instance, is the relation between artistic and non-artistic use of photography? Of painting or drawing? Of language? What is the relation between the media and human sensations and perceptions? Do the human senses alter in response to changes in the available media? Do we learn new ways of seeing and hearing from inventions like drawing, painting, photography, the phonograph, cinema, and video? What happens to objects when we adapt or "translate" them into other media: written narratives into film narratives or architecture into photography?

This not a course in "media studies" as that term has come to be more narrowly understood in contemporary society. We will consider works of philosophy, criticism, and theory, ancient and modern: Plato, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Benjamin, and Woolf. We will range across historical eras and moments to consider aesthetic objects of many kinds: films, paintings, photographs, novels, songs, poems, sonatas, plays, and operas. In some instances, we will be asking questions about how the aesthetic object is situated within cultural history. More often, though, we will be asking questions aimed at fostering sensitivity to, and analysis of, the sensory, cognitive, and emotional shaping of the aesthetic experience, and how that shape is shaped by the medium in which it occurs.

Each quarter of the three-quarter sequence will array a mix of objects and media for examination but will also carry a particular thematic emphasis. The autumn quarter will focus on seeing, especially on the problems that arise when objects and texts seem to offer themselves as "reflections" or "imitations" of the world (e.g., Velàzquez's Las Meninas, Plato's allegory of the cave, Aristotle's Poetics, Hitchock's Vertigo, Wilde's Picture of Dorian Gray, and Cindy Sherman's photographs). The winter quarter will focus on hearing, with particular emphasis on how sounds are "composed" for effect in various ways—in this quarter we will attend to issues of musical form, to the prosodic analysis of poetry, to representations of composed sound in fiction and cinema, to philosophical discussions of hearing, and to the analyses of sound composition in such writers as diverse as Poe and Adorno. The spring quarter will focus on reading and the questions routinely associated with the aesthetic object considered as a "text" to be "interpreted" (e.g., Plato's Phaedrus, Genesis, Hamlet, Welles's Citizen Kane, Woolf's To the Lighthouse). Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

20000-20100-20200. Judaic Civilization I, II, III. This sequence fulfills the general education requirement in civilization studies. This is a sequential study of periods and communities selected from the history of Judaic civilization, viewed from multiple perspectives (historical, literary, philosophical, religious, and social) and examined in light of the varied ways that civilization is and is not the product of interactions between the Jewish people and surrounding civilizations, nations, and religions. The primary focus is on a close reading of original sources in translation. Specific periods and communities studied may vary from year to year.

20000. Judaic Civilization I: Introduction to Biblical Civilization (=HUMA 20000, JWSC 20000/31000). This course provides an overall introduction to the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), with specific attention to its literary, religious, and ideological contents. The diversity of thought and theology in ancient Israel is explored, along with its notions of text, teaching, and tradition. Revision and reinterpretation is found within the Bible itself. Portions of the earliest post-biblical interpretation (in Philo, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and selected Pseudepigrapha) are also considered. T. Frymer-Kensky. Autumn.

20100. Judaic Civilization II: Rabbinic Judaism from the Mishnah to Maimonides (=HUMA 20100, JWSC 20100/31100). This course studies the primary texts in the development of classical and medieval rabbinic Judaism from roughly 70 C.E. to the twelfth century. The course centers on selections (in translation) from the Mishnah and tannaitic Midrash, the Babylonian Talmud, Geonic and Karaite writing, the Judeo-Arabic and Hebrew literature of Andalusia, and Maimonides' legal and philosophical compositions. Topics include different conceptions of the Hebrew Bible and its interpretation, the origins and development of the Oral Law, relations between Judaism and both Christianity and Islam, sectarianism, rationalist and antirationalist trends in rabbinic thought, and the emergence of secular pursuits in the rabbinic tradition. Staff. Winter.

20200. Judaic Civilization III (=HUMA 20200, JWSC 20200/31200). The third quarter of the sequence focuses on Jewish life and creative achievement in America, the Holocaust and testimonies by survivors, and a brief look at modern Jewish theology. Staff. Spring.

Collegiate Courses

20400. Reconnecting Two German Literatures: Norwegian and German (=GRMN 23500, GSHU 22200, HUMA 20400, NORW 23500). With the exception of an occasional Ibsen drama, Norwegian literature is seriously neglected by contemporary readers and critics outside of Scandinavia. The goal of this course is to reconnect Norwegian literature to its more mainstream Germanic kin, namely, German literature. We will examine examples of ground-breaking Norwegian literature from the period 1860-1910, known as the "Modern Breakthrough" and German literature from the same period. Working comparatively, we will assess the nature of the relationship between these texts, as well as the relationship between the two national literatures. Readings come from Ibsen, Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Kielland, Hamsun, and Kafka. K. Kenny. Winter.

20500. Short Stories: Fitzgerald and Hemingway (=FNDL 23100, HUMA 20500). Many of the short stories of these two authors are gems: beautifully crafted, compactly expressive, and often profound in implication. We read a representative number of stories to see how they express the author's aesthetic and philosophical view of being. Among the stories we read are Fitzgerald's "Bernice Bobs Her Hair," "The Diamond as Big as the Ritz," "The Rich Boy," "The Bridal Party," and "Babylon Revisited"; and Hemingway's "Indian Camp," "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife," "The End of Something," "The Three-Day Blow," "Big Two-Hearted River," "A Clean and Well-Lighted Place," and "The Killers." E. Wasiolek. Spring.

21200. Myths and Symbols of Evil (=FNDL 22300, HUMA 21200, RELH 22300, RLST 23600). This course examines in depth Martin Buber's Good and Evil and Paul Ricoeur's Symbolism of Evil. There are a few brief lectures, but emphasis is on seminar discussion and student participation. A. Carr. Winter.

21400. Rhetorical Theories of Legal and Political Reasoning (=GSHU 22300/32300, HUMA 21400, IMET 32400, LLSO 22400, SOSC 22400). This course uses Plato's Gorgias to raise the question of whether practical thinking is possible and considers responses to this question by such writers as Aristotle, Cicero, and Machiavelli. We study the methods and concepts that each writer uses to defend the cogency of legal, deliberative or more generally political prudence against explicit or implicit charges that practical thinking is merely a knack or form of cleverness. W. Olmsted. Autumn.

21600. Austen: Emma and Pride and Prejudice (=GSHU 22300/32300, HUMA 21600, IMET 32400, LLSO 22400, SOSC 22400). This course considers two novels by Jane Austen in terms of how they treat gender, class, socioeconomic circumstances, family structure, and geographical places as constraining and facilitating the agency of characters. In responding to change, Austen's characters bridge differences of class, gender, family history, and geographical place to form friendships and marriages that change their self-understandings and capacities for productive social and personal activities. We will discuss Austen's representations of evolving selves and how they develop or fail to develop growing powers of agency as they respond to historical and socioeconomic circumstances. W. Olmsted. Winter.

21700-21800-21900. First Year Yiddish through Literature I, II, III (=EEUR 24000-24100-24200, HUMA 21700-21800-21900, JWST 23700-23800-23900/36500-36600-36700, LGLN 24000-24100-24200/34000-34100-34200). The first quarter is devoted to an overview of Yiddish grammar through the reading of a series of short poems in the original. The second and third quarters are devoted to developing active knowledge of Yiddish through continued reading, grammar drill, and conversational practice. H. Aronson. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

22000. John Stuart Mill: Essays on Bentham and Coleridge, Autobiography, and Related Brief Texts (=FNDL 26300, GSHU 24400, HUMA 22000). Mill's claim that Bentham and Coleridge were "the two great seminal minds of England in their age" may be taken as the keynote for close reading of these texts. The course extends the question, however, to whether the tendencies in social and political thought Mill attributes to the two figures continue to define our debates and doubts. C. Gray. Winter.

22200. Constitution of Community (=FNDL 23700, HUMA 22200, IMET 31100, LLSO 21700). Attention is once again being given to how a "we," a community, establishes itself. This interest often assumes that discussion and deliberation plays a, perhaps the, major role, and often coincides with the notion that the organization of the community should be through government by discussion. This course is concerned with one major example of the constitution of a community, the United States. Texts of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the "debates" in Philadelphia in 1787 (especially Madison's Notes), the ratification conventions (especially the Federalist), and the actions in the newly formed Congress, especially the House, are discussed. Otherwise put, the course is thus not a repetition of the typical "historical," "legal," or "philosophical" emphases with which these events and texts have been treated. D. Smigelskis. Winter.

22600. Introduction to Russian Literature I: From the Beginnings to 1850 (=HUMA 22600, RUSS 25500/35500). This course is a survey of Russian literature in translation from the Igor Tale to the middle of the nineteenth century. Major figures covered are Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, and Turgenev. All readings in English. Staff. Autumn.

22800-22900. Problems in Gender Studies (=ENGL 10200-10300, GNDR 10100-10200, HUMA 22800-22900, SOSC 28200-28300). PQ: Second-year standing or higher. Completion of the general education requirement in social sciences or humanities, or the equivalent. May be taken in sequence or individually. This two-quarter interdisciplinary sequence is designed as an introduction to theories and critical practices in the study of feminism, gender, and sexuality. Both classic texts and recent conceptualizations of these contested fields are examined. Problems and cases from a variety of cultures and historical periods are considered, and the course pursues their differing implications in local, national, and global contexts. Both quarters also engage questions of aesthetics and representation, asking how stereotypes, generic conventions, and other modes of circulated fantasy have contributed to constraining and emancipating people through their gender or sexuality.

22800. This course addresses the production of particularly gendered norms and practices. Using a variety of historical and theoretical materials, it addresses how sexual difference operates in the contexts of nation, race, and class formation, for example, and/or work, the family, migration, imperialism, and postcolonial relations. S. Michaels, Autumn; L. Salzinger, Winter.

22900. This course focuses on histories and theories of sexuality: gay, lesbian, heterosexual, and otherwise. This exploration involves looking at a range of materials from anthropology to the law, and from practices of sex to practices of science. M. Miller, Autumn; S. Michaels, Winter.

23000-23100-23200. Medieval Jewish History I, II, III (=HUMA 23000-23100-23200, JWSC 23000-23100-23200/38100-38200-38300, MDJS 28000-28100-28200). PQ: Consent of instructor. This three-quarter sequence deals with the history of the Jews over a wide geographical and historical range. First-quarter work is concerned with the rise of early rabbinic Judaism and development of the Jewish communities in Palestine and the Eastern and Western diasporas during the first several centuries C.E. Topics include the legal status of the Jews in the Roman world, the rise of rabbinic Judaism, the rabbinic literature of Palestine in that context, the spread of rabbinic Judaism, the rise and decline of competing centers of Jewish hegemony, the introduction of Hebrew language and culture beyond the confines of their original home, and the impact of the birth of Islam on the political and cultural status of the Jews. An attempt is made to evaluate the main characteristics of Jewish belief and social concepts in the formative periods of Judaism as it developed beyond its original geographical boundaries. Second-quarter work is concerned with the Jews under Islam, both in Eastern and Western Caliphates. Third-quarter work is concerned with the Jews of Western Europe from the eleventh through the fifteenth century. N. Golb. Autumn, Winter, Spring.

23300. The Brothers Karamazov (=FNDL 27000, HUMA 23300, RUSS 24300). PQ: Consent of instructor. Close reading and discussion of the primary text: Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov in English translation (Norton Critical Edition). Students are asked to prepare one background reading in advance: Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground. The emphasis is on moral, intellectual, and religious issues, and, to a lesser extent, on novelistic technique. Text in English. N. Ingham. Spring.

23400. World of Biblical Prophets (=HUMA 23400, JWSC 23400/33400, NCDV 28000). This course offers an in-depth analysis of the biblical prophets. Each prophet is set in historical time and within a particular societal context, and against this background a profile of the man is drawn. What was he like as social reformer and religious thinker? What did he say "no" to in society and "no" to in organized worship? And to what did he say "yes?" How was his message received and what influence did it have in its day? And, finally, is the individual prophet merely a historical figure or a curiosity of antiquity, or does he speak to us in our age? H. Moltz. Autumn.

23500. The Radicalism of Job and Ecclesiastes (=FNDL 24600, HUMA 23500, JWSC 23500). Both Job and Ecclesiastes dispute a central doctrine of the Hebrew Bible, namely, the doctrine of retributive justice. Each book argues that a person's fate is not a consequence of his or her religious-moral acts and thus the piety, whatever else it is, must be disinterested. In brief, the authors of Job and Ecclesiates, each in his own way, not only "de-mythologize" but "de-moralize" the world. Theological and philosophical implications are discussed. Texts in English. H. Moltz. Spring.

23900. Liberating Narratives (=HUMA 23900, IMET 31800, LLSO 21800). Some reflective autobiographies written in mid-career are featured. The primary texts are Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior, Bill Bradley's Life on the Run, and James Watson's The Double Helix. Each exemplifies how some people have used various resources and strategies to increase their ability to act without simultaneously diminishing the similar abilities of others in situations which require overcoming systemically oppressive obstacles. This is in part accomplished through examples of how a flourishing in certain types of activities has been achieved and the kinds of satisfactions involved. Other texts are chosen as the interests of the class emerge in discussion. D. Smigelskis. Spring.

24000. Introduction to Russian Literature II (=GSHU 22400/32400, HUMA 24000, RUSS 25600/35600). This is a survey covering the second half of the nineteenth century. Major figures studied are Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Leskov, Saltykov-Shchedrin, and Chekhov. Representative works are read for their literary value and against their historical, cultural, and intellectual background. Texts in English. Class discussion is encouraged. N. Ingham. Winter.

24100. Introduction to Russian Literature III: Twentieth-Century Russian Literature (=GSHU 23100/33100, HUMA 24100, Russ 25700/35700). Course topics include Symbolism, the avant-garde of the 1920s, Socialist realism, contemporary trends, and émigré literature. Texts in English and the original. R. Bird. Spring.

24200. Dante in Translation (=FNDL 22100, HUMA 24200, ITAL 22100, RLST 26700). A close reading of the Divine Comedy by Dante, highlighting the major problems and the most famous cantos. An important goal of the course is to give a view of medieval culture (e.g., the allegorical mode, the problem of state and church, and the culture of Scholasticism) taking Dante's work as a basis. Classes conducted in English. P. Cherchi. Winter.

24600. Zola and Dostoevsky on Crime and Retribution (=FNDL 29400, HUMA 24600). This course consists of close reading and discussion of two European classics written independently from each other on similar themes: Zola's Thérèse Raquin (1868) and Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment (1866). Both are, in a sense, precursors of the detective novel, except that the criminals rather than the detectives are the protagonists. Both are examples of extreme positions taken on transgression: Zola represents a materialistic, "scientific" view and Dostoevsky a spiritual, Christian view of human behavior. Thus, both represent fundamental texts in expressing these fundamentally opposed points of view. P. Dembowski. Spring.

24700. Hegel's Philosophy of Right (=FNDL 23000, HUMA 24700, IMET 36900, LLSO 27500). The course first focuses on "translating" (becoming more familiar with) what is to many the peculiar language of Hegel, a language which has set and still sets the most important boundaries and questions for many thinkers, not merely about politics but also about economics, sociology, and jurisprudence. More importantly, a further focus is with particular arguments but also especially with the general strategies of Hegel's argument understood broadly, which is pursued as deeply as time and student interest permit. Moreover, once some comfort with the language and general argument is attained, a somewhat critical stance is adopted, if for no other reason than to guard against the possible bewitchment by what is probably for many a somewhat new language of thought. D. Smigelskis. Spring.

25100. Web Design: Aesthetics and Languages (=CMSC 10000, GSHU 29600, HUMA 25100). As a complement to courses in criticism, aesthetics, cultural studies, or Web programming, this course explores Web design as a liberal art of technology. Good multimedia design is based on our sensory intelligences, yet on the Web it requires syntheses of natural languages and artificial languages; of grammar, rhetoric, and logic; and, of course, mastery of the subject matter being presented. For the culture of "real virtuality," what design principles effectively and attractively communicate information, narratives, and explanations? We examine and create design environments in print and electronic media, with a focus on the Internet. M. Browning. Winter.

26700. Chekhov (=HUMA 26700, RUSS 27700/37700). Close readings and discussion of selected stories and plays. One paper. M. Ehre. Autumn.

26800. Power and Resistance: East Germany in Eastern Europe (=GRMN 28800, HUMA 26800) When the Eastern bloc collapsed in 1989, many understood this historical change as a liberation from repressive regimes. Viewing socialist states "from above" (as occupation regimes that were supported largely by Red Army tanks), this approach does little to explain the sudden, almost noiseless implosion of the socialist states in 1989, let alone their long-term stability. Focusing on the dissident culture of East Germany, this course examines some of the inner binding forces that held socialism together for more than forty years but also slowly eroded it. Moreover, our analyses of different forms of resistance and complicity developed in East German literature, film, underground art, queer culture, political theory, and so on, will take issue with the general assumption that intellectuals in East Germany were more conformist than their Eastern European counterparts. Placing East German dissident culture in the context of cultural productions from Czechoslovakia and Poland, we expose the historical specificity of the GDR as a state between East and West, fascism and socialism. The course is framed with a discussion of concepts of power and resistance developed inside and outside of a socialist context (texts by Wolf, Fühmann, Hein, Kirsch, Brasch, Bahro, Havel, Milosz, Michnik, Hrabal, Foucault, Kristeva, and Adorno; films by Wajda, Forman, and Beyer). A. Pinkert. Winter.

27400. Language, Power, and Identity in Southeastern Europe: A Linguistics View of the Balkan Crisis (=ANTH 27400/37400, HUMA 27400, LING 27200/37200, SLAV 23000/33000). Language is a key issue in the articulation of ethnicity and the struggle for power in Southeastern Europe. This course familiarizes students with the linguistic histories and structures that have served as bases for the formation of modern Balkan ethnic identities and that are being manipulated to shape current and future events. The course is informed by the instructor's thirty years of linguistic research in the Balkans as well as his experience as an advisor for the United Nations Protection Forces in Former Yugoslavia and as a consultant to the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Crisis Group, and other organizations. Course content may vary in response to ongoing current events. V. Friedman. Winter.

27800. Aristotle's Ethics (=FNDL 27700, HUMA 27800, IMET 37700, LLSO 27700). Special attention is given to the problems Aristotle thought important to consider, the sequence in which they are generated, and why such kind of problems may continue to be worthy of attention. A further focus is the manner in which the Ethics is a principled deliberative inquiry meant to eventuate in more sophisticated choices by the readers. D. Smigelskis. Winter.

29700. Reading Course. PQ: Consent of instructor and senior adviser. Students are required to submit the College Reading and Research Course Form. Staff. Autumn, Winter, Spring.