As students and faculty of the University of Chicago, we all belong to an academic community with high scholarly standards of which we are justly proud. Our community also holds certain fundamental ethical principles to which we are equally deeply committed. We believe it is contrary to justice, to academic integrity, and to the spirit of intellectual inquiry to submit the statements or ideas or work of others as one's own. To do so is plagiarism or cheating, offenses punishable under the University's disciplinary system. Because these offenses undercut the distinctive moral and intellectual character of the University, we take them very seriously; punishments for committing them may range up to permanent expulsion from the University of Chicago. The College, therefore, expects that you will properly acknowledge your use of another's ideas, whether that use is by direct quotation or by paraphrase, however loose. In particular, if you consult any written source and either directly or indirectly use what you find in that source in your own work, you must identify the author, title, and page number. If you have any doubts about what constitutes "use," consult your instructor and visit