Contacts | Program of Study | Application to the Program | Program Requirements | The Introductory Course | Other Course Work | Research | Honors | Reading and Research Courses | Grading | Advising | Law, Letters, and Society Courses

Program of Study

The program in Law, Letters, and Society is concerned with law in civilian and customary legal systems, both historically and contemporaneously. The program is designed to develop the student's analytical skills to enable informed and critical examination of law broadly construed. The organizing premise of the program is that law is a tool of social organization and control, not simply an expression of will or aspiration, and that it is best understood by careful study of both rhetorical artifacts and empirical consequences of its application. Program requirements are constructed to support the organizing premise, and, because of the nature of the requirements, transfer students are not eligible to register as Law, Letters, and Society majors.

The program requires course work in three areas, although there is a reasonably broad latitude both expected and permitted in satisfaction of the distributional requirement. There is a substantial writing requirement for all majors; majors are expected to produce substantial written work (sometimes called "the BA Paper") under the close supervision of a faculty member whose area of scholarly concern is related to the broad objectives of the program.

Application to the Program

Students must apply in Spring Quarter of their first year to enter the program in their second year. Autumn Quarter 2018 matriculants only are eligible to apply to begin the program in 2019–20. Students who entered the College prior to Autumn Quarter 2018 will not be considered.

Application materials will be made available electronically on Friday of tenth week of Winter Quarter and must be submitted by noon on Friday of the first week of Spring Quarter. No applications will be distributed or accepted during spring break. Students are evaluated on the basis of the application statement and previous performance in the College. Because of the nature of the requirements of the program, a limited number of students can be admitted per year.

Program Requirements

Course work is required in three areas. After successfully completing the Introductory Course, students must take two courses in Letters and two courses in Society. In addition, students must complete six other courses that, while not necessarily offered or listed formally under either rubric, are substantively supportive of the topics, areas, skills, or concerns of the two areas. Courses satisfying the additional requirement are identified on a quarterly basis, and final approval of additional required course work is made by consultation between the student and either the Associate Director or the Faculty Director.

The Introductory Course

The Introductory Course establishes the intellectual moorings of the program. The importance of the Introductory Course lies not in its content (indeed, its precise focus and scope may be different from time to time) but on its approach to the nature of law. Recently, for example, the Introductory Course has been LLSO 24200 Legal Reasoning, a study, based primarily on cases, of the classic conventions of legal argument in the Anglo-American legal system. In other years, the Introductory Course might be Roman Law or Greek Law, Medieval Law, or a text-based course on ancient legal philosophy, or a comparison of modern legal categories and policies with those of former societies and cultures. The objective is not so much to establish a historical foundation for modern studies as to demonstrate that legal systems are culturally rooted; that urgent, present concerns may obscure important characteristics of legal ideas and behavior; and that many recurrent themes in Western legal thought are shaped or driven by both common and uncommon features. Unlike many legal studies programs that attempt to orient study of the law primarily in contemporary debates, usually in the field of American constitutional law, the program seeks to organize its exploration of law as a system rather than as a forum or an instrument.

Other Course Work

Students must also take two courses each in the Letters and Society divisions of the program, plus six other courses complementary to the required work, as outlined previously (the other six courses may be ones cross listed in the program or may be from other disciplines). Letters and Society are not meant as fixed or self-defining fields, but instead as organizational categories emphasizing two fundamental modes of examining law in a systemic fashion. Courses under the rubric of Letters (whether based in the program or in English, philosophy, or political theory) tend to be based on the study of literary and historical artifacts, such as cases, tracts, conventional literature, or other texts, and emphasize the ways in which law formally constitutes itself. Questions of interpretative and normative theory, rhetorical strategy, and the like are central to such courses. Society serves to organize studies from a variety of different disciplines (including history, political science, economics, and sociology) that try to measure, with different techniques and at different times, the effect of law on society. The combined objective is to treat law as an intellectual activity and as a phenomenon, and to emphasize that both occur in contexts that help to shape them, whether ancient or modern.


In addition to satisfying the course requirements, each student in the program must produce evidence of sustained research in the form of a substantial research paper during either the junior or senior year and obtain approval of a member of the faculty, although not necessarily a member of the program faculty. Papers may be written in conjunction with Law, Letters, and Society courses, under the auspices of reading and research courses, or in a Research Seminar. (The paper is an independent requirement, however, and need not be accomplished in conjunction with enrollment in a specific course.) The scope, method, and objective of the paper, as well as its length, are subject to negotiation between the student and the instructor.

Summary of Requirements

LLSO 24200Legal Reasoning (Introductory Course)100
Two Letters courses200
Two Society courses200
Six Complementary courses *600
Total Units1100


Students who wish to be considered for honors must notify the Faculty Director, Associate Director, and their faculty supervisor in writing no later than two quarters before the quarter in which they expect to receive their degree. Eligible students must maintain a GPA of at least 3.50 both overall and in the major, and they must write a distinguished research paper. The paper must be submitted by noon on Friday of fifth week in the quarter of proposed graduation (other papers must be submitted by noon on Friday of seventh week), and the student's faculty supervisor and a second reader must agree that honors are merited. It should be noted that honors are awarded sparingly.

Reading and Research Courses

For students with a legitimate interest in pursuing study that cannot be met by means of regular courses, there is an option of devising a reading and research course to be supervised by a member of the faculty and taken for a quality grade. Such courses may not be used to satisfy the requirements of either the two-course Letters or two-course Society requirements, but may be used to satisfy part of the other six required courses, with the written permission of the Faculty Director or the Associate Director obtained in advance of initiation of the work. Only two research courses may be used within the major. LLSO 29400 Research Seminar: LLSO may also be used as one of the six Complementary Courses.


Two of the six complementary courses required in the program may, with consent of instructor, be taken for Pass/Fail grading. Students who enroll in LLSO 29400 Research Seminar: LLSO, offered annually, beginning Autumn 2010, are graded on a P/F basis, and the seminar counts as one of the two P/F-graded complementary courses.


Students who wish to major in Law, Letters, and Society must register for LLSO 24200 Legal Reasoning in Autumn Quarter of their second year. This requirement is not negotiable. Students should note that, as an interdisciplinary major, the program has a strictly limited enrollment and that registration for the Introductory Course is determined during the preceding Spring Quarter. Upon deciding to major in Law, Letters, and Society, students should arrange to consult with the Faculty Director and the Associate Director on their course of study in the program. Students should continue to consult with their College advisers on general education degree requirements.

Please refer to the quarterly Class Search for the most up-to-date list of course offerings.

Law, Letters, and Society Courses

LLSO 20001. Theories of Sexuality and Gender. 100 Units.

This is a one-quarter, seminar-style introductory course for undergraduates. Its aim is triple: to engage scenes and concepts central to the interdisciplinary study of gender and sexuality; to provide familiarity with key theoretical anchors for that study; and to provide skills for deriving the theoretical bases of any kind of method. Students will produce descriptive, argumentative, and experimental engagements with theory and its scenes as the quarter progresses. Prior course experience in gender/sexuality studies (by way of the general education civilization studies courses or other course work) is strongly advised.

Instructor(s): L. Berlant, K. Schilt     Terms Offered: Autumn
Prerequisite(s): Prior course experience in gender/sexuality studies (by way of the general education civilization studies courses or other course work) is strongly advised.
Equivalent Course(s): CHDV 20001, ENGL 20001, GNSE 20001, SOCI 20290

LLSO 20116. Global-Local Politics. 100 Units.

Globalizing and local forces are generating a new politics in the United States and around the world. This course explores this new politics by mapping its emerging elements: the rise of social issues, ethno-religious and regional attachments, environmentalism, gender and life-style identity issues, new social movements, transformed political parties and organized groups, and new efforts to mobilize individual citizens.

Instructor(s): T. Clark     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): HMRT 20116, HMRT 30116, SOCI 20116, PBPL 27900, GEOG 30116, GEOG 20116, SOCI 30116

LLSO 20601. American Revolution, 1763 to 1789. 100 Units.

This lecture and discussion course explores the background of the American Revolution and the problem of organizing a new nation. The first half of the course uses the theory of revolutionary stages to organize a framework for the events of the 1760s and 1770s, and the second half of the course examines the period of constitution making (1776-1789) for evidence on the ways in which the Revolution was truly revolutionary.

Instructor(s): E. Cook     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 35300, HIST 25300

LLSO 20602. Early American Political Culture, 1600-1820. 100 Units.

This colloquium examines the culture and practice of political participation in early America, with a comparative look at early modern England. It traces the formation of a deferential, nonpartisan politics in the colonies, and its replacement in the Revolutionary era with politics that increasingly used political party as a means of democratic participation.

Instructor(s): E. Cook     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 28301, HIST 38301

LLSO 20803. Aristophanes's Athens. 100 Units.

The comedies of Aristophanes are as uproarious, biting, and ribald today as they were more than 2,400 years ago. But they also offer a unique window onto the societal norms, expectations, and concerns as well as the more mundane experiences of Athenians in the fifth century BCE. This course will examine closely all eleven of Aristophanes's extant plays (in translation) in order to address topics such as the performative, ritual, and political contexts of Attic comedy, the constituency of audiences, the relationship of comedy to satire, the use of dramatic stereotypes, freedom of speech, and the limits of dissent. Please note that this course is rated Mature for adult themes and language.

Instructor(s): J. Hall     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): CLAS 33608, CLCV 23608, HIST 20803, HIST 30803, FNDL 23608, ANCM 33900

LLSO 21001. Human Rights: Contemporary Issues. 100 Units.

This interdisciplinary course presents an overview of several major contemporary human rights problems as a means to explore the use of human rights norms and mechanisms. The course addresses the roles of states, inter-governmental bodies, national courts, civil society actors including NGOs, victims, and their families, and other non-state actors. Topics are likely to include universalism, enforceability of human rights norms, the prohibition against torture, U.S. exceptionalism, and the rights of women, racial minorities, and non-citizens.

Equivalent Course(s): LACS 21001, HMRT 21001, HMRT 31001, HIST 29304

LLSO 21002. Human Rights: Philosophical Foundations. 100 Units.

Human rights are claims of justice that hold merely in virtue of our shared humanity. In this course we will explore philosophical theories of this elementary and crucial form of justice. Among topics to be considered are the role that dignity and humanity play in grounding such rights, their relation to political and economic institutions, and the distinction between duties of justice and claims of charity or humanitarian aid. Finally we will consider the application of such theories to concrete, problematic and pressing problems, such as global poverty, torture and genocide. (A) (I)

Instructor(s): B. Laurence     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): HMRT 21002, HIST 39319, PHIL 31002, HIST 29319, HMRT 31002, INRE 31602, MAPH 42002, PHIL 21002

LLSO 21100. How Things Get Done in Cities and Why. 100 Units.

Innovation. Prosperity. Democracy. Diversity. Cities long have been lauded as unique incubators of these social features. In contrast to the national level, the smaller scale and dense diversity of cities is thought to encourage the development of civic solutions that work for the many. But cities are inhabited by distinct groups of people with divergent interests and varied beliefs about how to address countless urban issues, such as creating jobs, delivering education, ensuring safe neighborhoods, promoting environmental sustainability, and taking care of the vulnerable. Many groups and organizations have an interest in the outcomes of these processes. Some take action to try to shape them to their own advantage, while others have few chances to make themselves heard. This course examines the social and political dynamics that undergird possible avenues for creating social change in cities, including interest representation, decision-making, and inclusion/exclusion. We will draw insights from multiple disciplines and explore a variety of substantive areas, such as housing, public safety, economic development, education, and the provision of social welfare. This course is part of the College Course Cluster program: Urban Design.

Terms Offered: TBD
Equivalent Course(s): SSAD 21100, SOCI 20294, ENST 25006, PBPL 25006

LLSO 21212. Roman Law. 100 Units.

The course will treat several problems arising in the historical development of Roman law: the history of procedure; the rise and accommodation of multiple sources of law, including the emperor; the dispersal of the Roman community from the environs of Rome to the wider Mediterranean world; and developments in the law of persons. We will discuss problems like the relationship between religion and law from the archaic city to the Christian empire, and between the law of Rome and the legal systems of its subject communities.

Instructor(s): C. Ando     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 21004, HIST 31004, CLCV 25808, SIGN 26017, CLAS 35808

LLSO 21310. Water: Economics, Policy and Society. 100 Units.

Concerns about water have a long history in human societies. While modern advances in water technology and new ways of considering water economics and policy have emerged to address stressors from development pressures, land use changes and urbanization, water problems continue to evolve across the globe. These problems, while rooted in scarcity, continue to become more complex due to myriad human and natural forces. Droughts and water shortages persist, putting pressure on agricultural production and urban water use, while the increased frequency and severity of rainfall and tropical storms, already being experienced globally, are only projected to grow in intensity and duration under climate change. This course examines how to design, implement and evaluate water-based policies at multiple scales under pressures from climate change, development, globalization and population growth. Students will explore water from the perspective of the social sciences and public policy, with attention on behavioral dimensions of water use and water conservation. Students in the course will consider and evaluate policy interventions to manage water and governance of public goods including property rights, water trading and water pricing.

Instructor(s): Sabina Shaikh     Terms Offered: Spring
Note(s): No prerequisites but the following courses are strongly recommended prior to enrollment in ENST 21310: PBPL 20000: Economics for Public Policy and PBPL 22200: Public Policy Analysis OR ECON 2000: The Elements of Economics Analysis I and ECON 20100: The Elements of Economics Analysis II ENST/MENG 20300: The Science, History, Policy, and Future of Water (Winter 2020) ENST 21800: Economics and Environmental Policy
Equivalent Course(s): PBPL 21310, GLST 21310, ENST 21310, ECON 16510

LLSO 21403. The British Empire on Trial: Corruption, Scandal, Dissent. 100 Units.

Throughout the long nineteenth century, British empire building remained a contentious pursuit. It threatened to shatter Britons' moral compasses, destabilize social hierarchies, squander tax revenue, and inflict untold miseries upon foreign populations. To legitimize their expansionism, colonial policy makers claimed that they were introducing benighted regions to the benefits of a universal rule of law. This course will examine how this legalistic form of governing actually functioned by probing the trials of three classes of offenders: "insurgent" and nationalist agitators, reformist critics of colonial misrule, and despotic officials themselves. Focusing on cases in England, the Caribbean, India, and Egypt, readings will reveal the shortcomings of the British judicial apparatus and identify the loopholes that enabled a proudly "free" nation to subjugate and silence dissidents with near impunity. By participating in mock trials, students will gain familiarity with historical legal processes and the rhetorical tactics that actors employed both in the courtroom and in the public sphere.

Instructor(s): Z. Leonard     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): SALC 26612, HIST 21403

LLSO 22209. Introduction to Black Chicago, 1893 to 2010. 100 Units.

This course surveys the history of African Americans in Chicago, from before the twentieth century to the near present. In referring to that history, we treat a variety of themes, including migration and its impact, the origins and effects of class stratification, the relation of culture and cultural endeavor to collective consciousness, the rise of institutionalized religions, facts and fictions of political empowerment, and the correspondence of Black lives and living to indices of city wellness (services, schools, safety, general civic feeling). This is a history class that situates itself within a robust interdisciplinary conversation. Students can expect to engage works of autobiography and poetry, sociology, documentary photography, and political science as well as more straightforward historical analysis. By the end of the class, students should have grounding in Black Chicago's history and an appreciation of how this history outlines and anticipates Black life and racial politics in the modern United States.

Instructor(s): A. Green     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): CRES 27705, HIST 27705, AMER 27705, HIST 37705, CRES 37705, AMER 37705

LLSO 22214. The Legal Tender of Gender: Paradigms of Equality & Realities of Inequality in Gender & the Law. 100 Units.

This course will provide an introduction to the concrete legal contexts in which issues of gender and sexuality have been articulated and contested. Students will be asked to think critically about the intersections of law, society, and gender while considering both the potential and the limitations of our legal system. Students will explore how gender constructs law, and how law constructs gender. Through engaging with readings that span law and society, feminist legal theory, constitutional scholarship, and case law, students will be able to identify, situate, and debate some of the basic premises of what constitutes justice and equality in a liberal democracy. Readings will draw from primary and secondary resources related to gender & law in the US. While some court cases/case law will be read, our focus is on the broader relationship between law and society (no technical legal knowledge is required). We will study the evolution of our legal system's stance on topics including marriage/divorce, violence, discrimination, contraception/abortion, sexual orientation, privacy, Title IX, and more. Students will be invited to bring to bear a variety of feminist, queer, critical race, and intersectional tools on our discussions of the historical evolution of these issues and their current trends. Students will develop an original research paper, which will be workshopped throughout the quarter and will culminate in a symposium of students' original research on gender & law.

Instructor(s): Lara Janson     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): GNSE 22213

LLSO 22401. Topics in Judicial Studies. 100 Units.

This seminar examines three topics in current judicial studies: the appointment process, judicial reputation, and ideological "drift." Two short papers are required.

Instructor(s): Dennis Hutchinson     Terms Offered: Spring
Prerequisite(s): Consent only

LLSO 22402. Florentine Political Thought. 100 Units.

This course is devoted to the political writings of the giants of medieval and Renaissance Italian and specifically Florentine political thought: Petrarch, Salutati, Bruni, Bracciolini, Savonarola, Guicciardini and, of course, Machiavelli.

Instructor(s): J. McCormick     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 52402, PLSC 22402

LLSO 22403. Free Speech and the First Amendment. 100 Units.

This course will examine the Supreme Court's First Amendment jurisprudence, focusing on such issues as speech critical of the government, the hostile audience, classified information, libel, commercial advertising, obscenity, symbolic expression, campaign finance regulation and the freedom of the press

Instructor(s): Geoffrey Stone     Terms Offered: Not Offered in 2019-20

LLSO 22612. Introduction to Political Philosophy. 100 Units.

In this class we will investigate what it is for a society to be just. In what sense are the members of a just society equal? What freedoms does a just society protect? Must a just society be a democracy? What economic arrangements are compatible with justice? In the second portion of the class we will consider one pressing injustice in our society in light of our previous philosophical conclusions. Possible candidates include, but are not limited to, racial inequality, economic inequality, and gender hierarchy. Here our goal will be to combine our philosophical theories with empirical evidence in order to identify, diagnose, and effectively respond to actual injustice. (A)

Instructor(s): B. Laurence     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 22600, GNSE 21601, PHIL 21600

LLSO 23100. Environmental Law. 100 Units.

This course will examine the bases and assumptions that have driven the development of environmental law, as well as the intersection of this body of law and foundational legal principles (including standing, liability, and the Commerce Clause). Each form of lawmaking (statutes, regulations, and court decisions) will be examined, with emphasis on reading and understanding primary sources such as court cases and the laws themselves. The course also analyzes the judicial selection process in order to understand the importance of how the individuals who decide cases that determine the shape of environmental law and regulations are chosen.

Instructor(s): R. Lodato     Terms Offered: Winter
Prerequisite(s): Third- or fourth-year standing, or consent of instructor
Equivalent Course(s): ENST 23100, PBPL 23100

LLSO 23262. International Human Rights. 100 Units.

This course is an introduction to international human rights law, covering the major instruments and institutions that operate on the international plane. It includes discussion of the conceptual underpinnings of human rights, the structure of the United Nations System, the major international treaties, regional human rights machinery, and the interplay of national and international systems in enforcing human rights. There are no prerequisites. Grading will be on the basis of a take-home exam at the end of the quarter. Students who wish to write, in lieu of the exam, a paper sufficient to satisfy the substantial writing requirement, may do so upon approval of the topic in advance.

Equivalent Course(s): HMRT 37700, PPHA 38752, PLSC 56101

LLSO 23420. The Civil Rights Movement in the United States, 1865-Present. 100 Units.

This class examines the history of the African American Freedom Struggle in the United States from emancipation to the present. Although the course will move chronologically, our emphasis will be thematic, covering such topics as voting rights and political participation, sex and marriage rights, criminal justice reform, the role of courts, and the relationship between law and social movements. A series of research papers will be required for this class (20-25 pages). Participation may be considered in final grading.

Instructor(s): Jane Dailey     Terms Offered: Winter
Prerequisite(s): None

LLSO 23901. The Federalist Papers and Anti-Federalist Writings. 100 Units.

This course examines the debate over the ratification of the Constitution through a reading of The Federalist Papers and selected Anti-Federalist writings as works of continuing relevance to current practical and theoretical debates. Issues include war and peace, interests and the problem of faction, commerce, justice and the common good as ends of government, human nature, federalism, republican government, representation, separation of powers, executive power, the need for energy and stability, the need for a bill of rights, and constitutionalism.

Instructor(s): Nathan Tarcov     Terms Offered: Winter
Prerequisite(s): Open to undergrads
Equivalent Course(s): SCTH 31715, PLSC 33930, FNDL 21719, PLSC 23901

LLSO 23915. Plato's Republic. 100 Units.

This course is devoted to reading and discussion of Plato's Republic and some secondary work with attention to justice in the city and the soul, war and warriors, education, theology, poetry, gender, eros, and actually existing cities.

Instructor(s): Nathan Tarcov     Terms Offered: Autumn. Course will be taught Autumn 2019
Prerequisite(s): Undergrads by consent
Equivalent Course(s): SCTH 31770, PLSC 43820, FNDL 29503

LLSO 24102. Environmental Politics. 100 Units.

This course examines the different theoretical underpinnings of environmental activism and elucidates the manner in which they lead to different ends. We explore several contrasting views of environmentalism, including the land ethic, social ecology, and deep ecology. Discussions are based on questions posed about the readings and the implications they suggest. Class participation is required.

Instructor(s): R. Lodato     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): PBPL 24102, ENST 24102

LLSO 24200. Legal Reasoning. 100 Units.

This course introduces legal reasoning in a customary legal system. The first part examines the analytical conventions that lawyers and judges purport to use. The second part examines fundamental tenets of constitutional and statutory interpretation. Both judicial decisions and commentary are used, although the case method is emphasized.

Instructor(s): David Lyons     Terms Offered: Autumn
Prerequisite(s): Open only to second-year students who are beginning the LLSO major.

LLSO 24300. American Law and the Rhetoric of Race. 100 Units.

This course presents an episodic study of the ways in which American law has treated legal issues involving race. Two episodes are studied in detail: the criminal law of slavery during the antebellum period and the constitutional attack on state-imposed segregation in the twentieth century. The case method is used, although close attention is paid to litigation strategy as well as to judicial opinions. Undergraduate students registering in the LLSO, PLSC, HIST, AMER cross-listed offerings must go through the undergraduate pre-registration process. Law students do NOT need consent.

Note(s): Not Offered in 2019-20
Equivalent Course(s): AMER 49801, HIST 27116, PLSC 22300

LLSO 24319. The Idea of Freedom in Antiquity. 100 Units.

Freedom may be the greatest of American values. But it also has a long history, a dizzying variety of meanings, and a huge literature. This course will be an introduction to critical thinking on freedom (primarily political freedom) with an emphasis on Greco-Roman texts. The first half of the class will focus on Greek authors, including Herodotus, Euripides, and Aristotle. The second half will focus on Roman authors, from Cicero to Livy to Tacitus. The ancient texts will be supplemented by modern literature on freedom, such as John Stuart Mill and Isaiah Berlin.

Instructor(s): A. Horne     Terms Offered: Autumn
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 30507, CLAS 34319, CLCV 24319, HIST 20507

LLSO 24711. Lincoln: Slavery, War & the Constitution. 100 Units.

This course is a study of Abraham Lincoln's view of the Constitution, based on close readings of his writings, plus comparisons to judicial responses to Lincoln's policies.

Instructor(s): Dennis Hutchinson     Terms Offered: Autumn
Note(s): Consent Only
Equivalent Course(s): FNDL 24411, HIST 27102

LLSO 24901. U.S. Environmental Policy. 100 Units.

Making environmental policy is a diverse and complex process. Environmental advocacy engages different governmental agencies, congressional committees, and courts, depending on the issue. This course examines how such differentiation has affected policy making over the last several decades.

Instructor(s): R. Lodato     Terms Offered: Autumn
Equivalent Course(s): PBPL 24701, ENST 24701

LLSO 25005. Inequality at Work: The Changing Nature of Jobs and Prospects for Improvement. 100 Units.

This course will consider sources of inequality in the labor market and in workplaces. Empirical evidence and theory on labor markets and job conditions will be analyzed to provide insights into the changing nature of work and workplace inequality for the majority of Americans -- who do not hold a four-year college degree. Although the course will consider ways to ready workers for good jobs in the economy, the emphasis will be on improving jobs themselves, through voluntary employer behavior, collective action, and public policy. The assignment for the course involves observing and/or interviewing workers in an occupation chosen by the student.

Instructor(s): Susan Lambert     Terms Offered: TBD
Equivalent Course(s): SSAD 25005, PBPL 25005

LLSO 25206. Digital Culture: Artificial Intelligence, Algorithms, and the Web. 100 Units.

In contrast to print culture and electronic culture, yet embedded in them, contemporary digital culture engages us in human-computer systems empowered as media for mobile communication in the global network society. In our conjoined online and offline environments, we inhabit human-computer hybrids in which (for instance) we learn, imagine, communicate, pay attention, and experience affect. How can we understand and critique our theories, concepts, practices, and technologies of intelligence and information in relation to the capacities of these digital machines with which we co-evolve? For exploring this question, our case studies include comparing artificial and natural intelligences, as well as examining algorithms and their socio-political impacts, in current web functionalities such as search (Google) and social media (Facebook,Twitter).

Instructor(s): Browning, Margot     Terms Offered: Not offered in 19-20
Equivalent Course(s): HUMA 25206, HIPS 25206

LLSO 25215. The American Presidency. 100 Units.

This course examines the institution of the American presidency. It surveys the foundations of presidential power, both as the Founders conceived it, and as it is practiced in the modern era. This course also traces the historical development of the institutional presidency, the president's relationships with Congress and the courts, the influence presidents wield in domestic and foreign policymaking, and the ways in which presidents make decisions in a system of separated powers.

Instructor(s): W. Howell     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 35215, PLSC 25215, AMER 25215, PBPL 25216

LLSO 25219. Art of Rhetoric from Aristotle to Cicero. 100 Units.

Rhetoric was the supreme technology of the Greco-Roman world, and the principal focus of formal schooling up to the end of antiquity and beyond. The readings for the course show how the psychology of persuasion was reduced to a system, how the system was adapted to political structures of the very different societies in which it flourished, and how orators put it into practice: Aristotle's Rhetoric, Cicero's On the Orator and Brutus, and selected speeches of Demosthenes, Cicero, and others.

Instructor(s): P. White     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): CLAS 35219, CLCV 25219

LLSO 25320. Witnessing Medieval Evil: Literature, Art, and the Politics of Observation. 100 Units.

Seeing hell for oneself, watching the torture of a saint, looking at illustrations of violence: these profoundly terrible experiences, narrated and drawn, shaped the way medieval readers took in the world around them, its violence, its suffering, its preponderance of evils. But how exactly does literature allow readers to witness and process such horrors? How is the observation of violence transformed by art? What is unique about the medieval experience of these artistic and literary forms of mediation? What can they teach us about our own contemporary cultural encounters with the sights and stories of atrocity? By exploring questions like these, this course will consider the didactic, religious, and epistemological functions of witnessing in a variety of early medieval texts such as illustrated copies of Prudentius's Psychomachia (in which the Virtues engage in a gruesome battle against the Vices), the Apocalypse of Paul (in which Paul sees hell and lives to tell about it), early medieval law codes, the Life of St. Margaret, the Old English Genesis, and the heroic poem Judith. These medieval texts will be read alongside thinkers like Giorgio Agamben, W.J.T. Mitchell, and Susan Sontag, whose work on images of atrocity in the modern world will both inform our critical examination of the Middle Ages while opening up the possibility for rethinking literature and art in relation to contemporary experiences of violence. (Fiction, Poetry, Pre-1650, Theory).

Instructor(s): Benjamin Saltzman     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): SIGN 26057, MDVL 15320, ENGL 15320

LLSO 25405. The American Classics. 100 Units.

This course offers an introduction to six of the greatest works of American literature: Nathaniel Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter (1850), Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), Henry David Thoreau's Walden (1854), Frederick Douglass's My Bondage and My Freedom (1855), and Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass (1855). Lectures invite you to immerse yourselves in the environments in which they were written and to explore the crucial literary, intellectual, social, religious, economic, and political contexts that shaped the production and reception of these distinctly American contributions to world literature. (Fiction, Poetry, 1830-1940)

Instructor(s): Eric Slauter     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): ENGL 25405, SIGN 26065

LLSO 25630. Poverty, Work, and Family Policy. 100 Units.

This course examines contemporary policy questions regarding the dual spheres of work and family life, with a particular focus on economically impoverished families and communities. Students will analyze the relative merits of different policies designed to improve the conditions of work and family life and mitigate the effects of poverty on children's wellbeing. Throughout the ten-week quarter, we will consider demographic, labor market, and policy trends contributing to family poverty and income inequality in American society; interrogate policy debates concerning the responsibility of government, corporate, and informal sectors to address these critical social problems; and examine specific policy and program responses directed at (1) improving employment and economic outcomes and (2) reconciling the competing demands of employment and parenting. Although our primary focus will be on policies that promote the wellbeing of low-income families in the United States, relevant comparisons will be made cross-nationally, across race/ethnicity, and across income. This course is part of the Inequality, Social Problems, and Change minor.

Equivalent Course(s): SSAD 25630, CRES 25630

LLSO 25904. America in the Twentieth Century. 100 Units.

This is a thematic lecture course on the past 115 years of US history. The main focus of the lectures will be politics, broadly defined. The readings consist of novels and nonfiction writing, with a scattering of primary sources. Assignments: Three 1,500-word papers.

Instructor(s): J. Dailey     Terms Offered: Spring
Note(s): History Gateways are introductory courses meant to appeal to 1st- through 3rd-yr students who may not have done previous course work on the topic of the course; topics cover the globe and span the ages.
Equivalent Course(s): AMER 17805, HIST 17805

LLSO 26201. Economics and Environmental Policy. 100 Units.

This course combines basic microeconomic theory and tools with contemporary environmental and resources issues and controversies to examine and analyze public policy decisions. Theoretical points include externalities, public goods, common-property resources, valuing resources, benefit/cost analysis, and risk assessment. Topics include pollution, global climate change, energy use and conservation, recycling and waste management, endangered species and biodiversity, nonrenewable resources, congestion, economic growth and the environment, and equity impacts of public policies.

Instructor(s): S. Shaikh     Terms Offered: Autumn
Prerequisite(s): ECON 19800 or higher, or PBPL 20000
Equivalent Course(s): ENST 21800, ECON 16520, PBPL 21800

LLSO 26249. Literature and the Financial Crisis of 2008. 100 Units.

In this course we will look at 2008 stock market crash as an event within literary fiction among writers in the US, the UK, and South Asia. (Fiction, Theory)

Instructor(s): Kenneth Warren     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): SIGN 26064, ENGL 26249

LLSO 26250. Richer and Poorer: Income Inequality. 100 Units.

Current political and recent academic debate has centered on income or wealth inequality. Data suggests a rapidly growing divergence between those earners at the bottom and those at the top. This course seeks to place that current concern in conversation with a range of moments in nineteenth and twentieth century history when literature and economics converged on questions of economic inequality. In keeping with recent political economic scholarship by Thomas Piketty, we will be adopting a long historic view and a somewhat wide geographic scale as we explore how economic inequality is represented, measured, assessed, and addressed. Readings will include some of the following literature: Hard Times, Le Pere Goriot, The Jungle, The Time Machine, Native Son, Landscape for a Good Woman, White Tiger; and some of the following economic and political texts: Principles of Political Economy, The Acquisitive Society, The Theory of the Leisure Class, Capital (Marx and Piketty), The Price of Inequality, and Inequality Re-examined. (B, G, H)

Instructor(s): Elaine Hadley     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): ENGL 26250, SIGN 26004

LLSO 26409. Revolution, Dictatorship, & Violence in Modern Latin America. 100 Units.

This course will examine the role played by Marxist revolutions, revolutionary movements, and the right-wing dictatorships that have opposed them in shaping Latin American societies and political cultures since the end of World War II. Themes examined will include the relationship among Marxism, revolution, and nation building; the importance of charismatic leaders and icons; the popular authenticity and social content of Latin American revolutions; the role of foreign influences and interventions; the links between revolution and dictatorship; and the lasting legacies of political violence and military rule. Countries examined will include Guatemala, Cuba, Chile, Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Mexico.

Instructor(s): B. Fischer     Terms Offered: Winter
Note(s): Some familiarity with Latin American history or the history of the global Cold War is helpful.
Equivalent Course(s): LACS 36409, LACS 26409, HIST 36409, HIST 26409

LLSO 26500. History of Mexico, 1876 to Present. 100 Units.

From the Porfiriato and the Revolution to the present, this course is a survey of Mexican society and politics, with emphasis on the connections between economic developments, social justice, and political organization. Topics include fin de siècle modernization and the agrarian problem; causes and consequences of the Revolution of 1910; the making of the modern Mexican state; relations with the United States; industrialism and land reform; urbanization and migration; ethnicity, culture, and nationalism; economic crises, neoliberalism, and social inequality; political reforms and electoral democracy; violence and narco-trafficking; the end of PRI rule; and AMLO's new government. Assignments: Class presentations, take-home midterm, and final essays.

Instructor(s): E. Kourí     Terms Offered: Autumn
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 26500, CRES 36500, HIST 36500, CRES 26500, LACS 36500, LACS 26500

LLSO 26509. Law and Citizenship in Latin America. 100 Units.

This course will examine law and citizenship in Latin America from the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries. We will explore the development of Latin American legal systems in both theory and practice, examine the ways in which the operation of these systems has shaped the nature of citizenship in the region, discuss the relationship between legal and other inequalities, and analyze how legal documents and practices have been studied by scholars in order to gain insight into questions of culture, nationalism, violence, inequality, gender, and race.

Instructor(s): B. Fischer     Terms Offered: Spring
Prerequisite(s): Some background in either Latin American studies or legal history.
Equivalent Course(s): LACS 26509, HIST 36509, LACS 36509, HIST 26509

LLSO 26615. Democracy's Life and Death. 100 Units.

How are democracies founded and maintained? What are their advantages and disadvantages with respect to stability, security, liberty, equality, and justice? Why do democracies decline and die? This course addresses these questions by examining democracies, republics, and popular governments in both the ancient and modern worlds. We will read and discuss primary texts from and social scientific analyses of Athenian democracy, the Roman Republic, the United States, and modern representative governments throughout the globe.

Instructor(s): J. McCormick     Terms Offered: Autumn
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 26615

LLSO 26703. Political Parties in the United States. 100 Units.

Political parties are a central feature of American government. In this course we will explore their role in contemporary politics and learn about their development over the course of American history. We will start by asking the following questions: What is a political party? Why do we have a two-party system, and how did that system develop? We will then proceed to study shifts in party coalitions, parties' evolving structures, their role in policymaking, and trends in popular attitudes about parties. Although our primary empirical focus will be on parties in the United States, we will spend some time on comparative approaches to political parties.

Instructor(s): R. Bloch Rubin     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 26703

LLSO 26802. Public Opinion. 100 Units.

What is the relationship between the mass citizenry and government in the U.S.? Does the public meet the conditions for a functioning democratic polity? This course considers the origins of mass opinion about politics and public policy, including the role of core values and beliefs, information, expectations about political actors, the mass media, economic self-interest, and racial attitudes. This course also examines problems of political representation, from the level of political elites communicating with constituents, and from the possibility of aggregate representation.

Instructor(s): J. Brehm     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 22400, CRES 22400

LLSO 26901. African American History to 1883. 100 Units.

A lecture course discussing selected topics in the African American experience (economic, political, social) from African origins through the Supreme Court decision invalidating Reconstruction Era protections of African American civil rights. Course evaluations via online quizzes and take-home essays.

Instructor(s): T. Holt     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 37200, CRES 37200, CRES 27200, HIST 27200

LLSO 27100. Human Rights II: History and Theory. 100 Units.

This course is concerned with the theory and the historical evolution of the modern human rights regime. It discusses the emergence of a modern "human rights" culture as a product of the formation and expansion of the system of nation-states and the concurrent rise of value-driven social mobilizations. It proceeds to discuss human rights in two prevailing modalities. First, it explores rights as protection of the body and personhood and the modern, Western notion of individualism. Second, it inquires into rights as they affect groups (e.g., ethnicities and, potentially, transnational corporations) or states.

Instructor(s): TBA     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): HMRT 30200, HIST 29302, HIST 39302, INRE 31700, CRES 29302, HMRT 20200

LLSO 27101. Democracy and the Information Technology Revolution. 100 Units.

The revolution in information technologies has serious implications for democratic societies. We concentrate, though not exclusively, on the United States. We look at which populations have the most access to technology-based information sources (the digital divide), and how individual and group identities are being forged online. We ask how is the responsiveness of government being affected, and how representative is the online community. Severe conflict over the tension between national security and individual privacy rights in the U.S., United Kingdom, and Ireland will be explored as well. We analyze both modern works (such as those by Turkle and Gilder) and the work of modern democratic theorists (such as Habermas).

Instructor(s): M. Dawson     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 23100

LLSO 27250. Religious Trials. 100 Units.

The rhetoric and practice of "trial" -- as testing and as adjudication -- is central to religious thought and religious practice. This course will examine the idea and the act of "trial" comparatively, via the classics of the religious literatures of Judaism and of Christianity (Genesis 22, Job, the Gospel of Mark, "The Pilgrim's Progress," Kafka), and also cinema (Dreyer's "Joan of Arc," R. & S. Elkabetz's "Gett").

Instructor(s): R. Rosengarten     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): RLST 27250

LLSO 27801. Media Ecology: Embodiment & Software. 100 Units.

Media ecology examines how the structure and content of our media environments-online and offline, in words, images, sounds, and textures-affect human perception, understanding, feeling, and value; or alternatively, media ecology investigates the massive and dynamic interrelation of processes and objects, beings and things, patterns and matter. At stake are issues about agency-human or material-and about determinism-how does society or culture interact with or shape its technologies, or vice versa? This course investigates theories of media ecology by exploring systems of meanings that humans embody (cultural, social, ecological) in conjunction with the emerging field of software studies about the cultural, political, social, and aesthetic impacts of software (e.g., code, interaction, interface). In our actual and virtual environments, how do we understand performing our multiple human embodiments in relation to other bodies (organism or machine) in pursuit of social or political goals?

Instructor(s): M. Browning     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): TAPS 28452, CMST 25204, MAAD 14204, HUMA 25202, HIPS 25203

LLSO 27815. Politics and Public Policy in China. 100 Units.

This course offers a historical and thematic survey of Chinese politics and of salient issues in China's public policy. We review the patterns and dynamics of political development or lack thereof in the Mao and reform eras, including the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the politics of reforms. Later sections of the course look at China's political institutions, leadership, as well as various issues of governance and public policy, including state-society relations, the relationship between Beijing and the provinces, corruption, population and environment. Emphasis is on how institutions have provided the incentives for change as well as how institutions have been transformed.

Instructor(s): D. Yang     Terms Offered: Winter
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 27815, PLSC 37815

LLSO 28100. Law and Society. 100 Units.

This seminar examines the myriad relationships between courts, laws, and lawyers in the United States. Issues covered range from legal consciousness to the role of rights to access to courts to implementation of decisions to professionalism. (B)

Instructor(s): G. Rosenberg     Terms Offered: Autumn
Prerequisite(s): PLSC 28800 or equivalent and consent of instructor.
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 22510

LLSO 28101. Democracy in America? 100 Units.

This course will explore the unlikely career of democracy in US history. Throughout its past, the United States has been defined by endless and unpredictable struggles to establish and extend self-government of one kind or another-even as those struggles have encountered great resistance and relied on the exclusion or subordination of some portion of society to underwrite expanding freedom and equality for those enjoying the fullest benefits of citizenship. American democracy has also relied on a conceptual separation between state and society that has necessarily broken down in practice, as political institutions produced and sustained economic forms like slavery or the corporation, social arrangements like the family, and cultural values such as freedom-even as private interests worked their reciprocal influence over public institutions. Over the course of the quarter we will explore this contested history of democracy in America through a close reading of classic texts, including Tocqueville's famous study, contextualized by the most current historical scholarship. Small, incremental writing assignments and individual presentations will culminate in a final essay that can emphasize philosophical/theoretical or historical/empirical questions according to students' interests. Students will also have the option of conducting their own original research to satisfy some portion of the coursework, which may lead to subsequent internship opportunities with relevant faculty.

Instructor(s): J. Sparrow     Terms Offered: Winter
Note(s): History in the World courses use history as a valuable tool to help students critically exam our society, culture, and politics. Preference given to 1st- and 2nd-yr students.
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 18101

LLSO 28204. Histories of Racial Capitalism. 100 Units.

What is the relationship between race and capitalism? This course introduces students to the concept of racial capitalism, which rejects treatments of race as external to a purely economic project and counters the idea that racism is an externality, cultural overflow, or aberration from the so-called real workings of capitalism. Spanning the colonization of North America to the era of mass incarceration, topics include the slave trade, indigenous dispossession, antebellum slavery, the Mexican-American War, "new imperialism," the welfare state, and civil rights. This class neither presumes a background in economics, nor previous coursework in history.

Instructor(s): D. Jenkins     Terms Offered: Winter
Note(s): History Gateways are introductory courses meant to appeal to 1st- through 3rd-yr students who may not have done previous course work on the topic of the course; topics cover the globe and span the ages.
Equivalent Course(s): AMER 18202, HIST 18202, CRES 18202

LLSO 28607. War, Diplomacy, and Empire in US History. 100 Units.

World politics have profoundly shaped the United States from its colonial origins to the war on terror. Yet only recently have US historians made a sustained effort to relate the foreign relations of the country to its domestic history. For a century and a half prior to independence, empire, trade, great-power politics, and violent conflict with Native Americans formed the large structures of power and meaning within which colonists pursued their everyday lives. In violently repudiating the claims of the British Empire, the revolutionaries commenced a political tradition that sought to avoid the perils of great-power statecraft for roughly the next century and a half. Yet even as it lent a distinctive cast to US politics and society, this pursuit of exceptionalism had to reckon with the requirements of state power and geopolitics from the Civil War onward. With its sudden embrace of great-power politics and the "rise to globalism" from WWII onward the United States became increasingly like the European societies it had repudiated at the founding, even as its exceptional military and economic power set it apart as a "unipolar power" by the turn of the millennium. To understand these developments in depth students will write two modest-length "deep-dive" analytical essays and three brief reports on targeted expeditions into primary materials, while reading broadly across the historiography of the new diplomatic and international history.

Instructor(s): J. Sparrow     Terms Offered: Spring
Note(s): Undergraduates register for one Friday discussion section (1–3); grad students register for section 4.
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 38607, HIST 28607

LLSO 28703. Early America, 1492-1815. 100 Units.

This course explores the development of American culture, society, and politics from the first contact between Native Americans and Europeans to the emergence of a stable American nation by the end of the War of 1812. It emphasizes the diverse experiences of the many kinds of Americans and the different meanings that they attached to the events in their lives. Topics include the meeting of Indigenous, African, and European peoples, the diversity of colonial projects, piracy and the Atlantic slave trade, the surprising emergence of a strong British identity, the coming of the American Revolution, the range of Americans' struggles for independence, and the role of the trans-Appalachian West in shaping the early republic. This lecture course is open to nonmajors and does not presume any previous history coursework. Assignments: Two papers.

Instructor(s): M. Kruer     Terms Offered: Autumn
Note(s): History Gateways are introductory courses meant to appeal to 1st- through 3rd-yr students who may not have done previous course work on the topic of the course; topics cover the globe and span the ages.
Equivalent Course(s): CRES 18703, AMER 18703, HIST 18703

LLSO 28800. African American History since 1883. 100 Units.

A lecture course discussing selected topics in the African American experience (economic, political, social) from Reconstruction Era protections of African American civil rights through social and political movements in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries seeking their restoration. Course evaluations via online quizzes and take-home essays.

Instructor(s): T. Holt     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): CRES 37300, CRES 27300, HIST 37300, HIST 27300

LLSO 29030. Totalitarianism, Law and Revolution. 100 Units.

In the final chapter of her seminal The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt argued that, far from being a lawless form of government, totalitarianism is an attempt to impose some notion of ultimate law directly on the world, with no mediation through positive law and no regard for the lived particularity of human communities. In this course we will examine some seminal attempts at theorizing about totalitarianism, as well as primary sources and some secondary sources on the history of totalitarian movements, all with an eye toward understanding what relationship totalitarianism bears both to forms of legality and to attempts at overturning prior legal, social, and political regimes.

Instructor(s): David Lyons     Terms Offered: Spring. Spring Quarter
Prerequisite(s): None

LLSO 29040. Wars of Religion and Regimes of Toleration. 100 Units.

There is a standard narrative that the brutality and instability of the sixteenth and seventeenth-century wars of religion gave rise to regimes of religious toleration and, eventually, separation of church and state. This narrative continues, arguing that the civil peace enjoyed today in much of the developed world depends upon barring religious commitments from the political sphere. This course will seek to interrogate this narrative and its assumptions through readings and discussions of primary sources, classic and contemporary historiography, and works of political and social theory. In doing so, students will be exposed not only to alternative understandings of the wars of religions and the origins of regimes of toleration, but will also be asked to consider some possible limits to and blind spots of liberal democracy.

Instructor(s): David Lyons     Terms Offered: Winter. Winter Quarter
Prerequisite(s): None
Equivalent Course(s): RLST 29040

LLSO 29050. Youth Law and Policy: Child Welfare and Juv. Just. in the U.S. 100 Units.

This course explores how legal institutions protect and punish children in the United States. We will spend the first part of the course exploring the child welfare system, which purports to protect children from abuse and neglect through various mechanisms including foster care and the termination of parental rights. We will spend the second part of the course exploring the juvenile justice system, which purports to prosecute and rehabilitate children for their criminal acts in a system separate from the criminal justice system. In the final part of the course, we will consider special topics in this area of law and policy including "cross-over youth" (i.e. children involved in both systems), unaccompanied immigrant children, homeless and runaway youth, and the so-called "school-to-prison-pipeline." This course will place special emphasis on the judges, lawyers, law enforcement officers, and social workers that comprise these legal institutions.

Terms Offered: Autumn
Prerequisite(s): Course limited to 3rd and 4th year students only.
Equivalent Course(s): PBPL 29050, HMRT 29050

LLSO 29060. Freedom of Religion. 100 Units.

This course will consider the place of religious freedom in the modern pluralistic liberal order and introduce students to some of the interpretive issues and legal doctrines associated with the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Readings will come from a mixture of classical writings from Hobbes to Tocqueville on the relationship between religion and civil government, more recent scholarly works on the place of religious commitments and religious diversity in the liberal political order, scholarly works on the Religion Clauses, and U.S. case law on the freedom of religion.

Instructor(s): David Lyons     Terms Offered: Winter
Prerequisite(s): none
Equivalent Course(s): RLST 29060

LLSO 29070. Church-State Relations from the Roman Empire to the Early Modern Period. 100 Units.

This course will provide students with a survey of the history of how relations between the church and the secular authorities-loosely understood as the state-have been imagined, negotiated, and structured in the West from the period of the earliest Christian writings up to the threshold of modernity. During this period the features both of secular authority and the Christian Church changed repeatedly, and so, too, did the relations between the two. This course thus aims to make the complexities of these changing features and relations apparent. Topics to be covered include the posture of Christians and Romans toward each other in the first centuries of Christian emergence; the Church's transformation from occasionally persecuted cult to licit religion to the official imperial religion; the dealings between the Church and the Germanic tribes and kingdoms that succeeded the western Empire; the conflicts between the Church and temporal rulers during the High Middle Ages; the relationship between the Inquisition and the secular authorities; the opportunities for both secular rulers and political radicalism opened up by the Protestant Reformation; and the emergence of Erastian forms of Christianity in the early-modern period. Readings will come from both primary and secondary texts, although the emphasis will be on the former.

Instructor(s): David Lyons     Terms Offered: Not Offered 2019-20
Prerequisite(s): None
Equivalent Course(s): RLST 29070, MDVL 29070

LLSO 29080. Modernity and Its Discontents from Dawn to Decline. 100 Units.

One need look neither too long nor too hard before recognizing that the project of modernity seems to be under considerable strain: the stability and perhaps even the desirability of secularism, mass democracy, individualism, cosmopolitanism, and technological and bureaucratic rationalism have all been increasingly challenged by worldwide political events and processes as well as by postmodern, radical, conservative, and religious intellectuals. In this course we will read some classical statements of the project as a means of best understanding modernity and its features. We will then move on to a consideration of classical and more contemporary critiques of modernity with an eye toward both identifying the limits of the modern project and possible avenues for the retrieval and reconstitution at least some features of modernity.

Instructor(s): David Lyons     Terms Offered: Not Offered in 2019-20
Prerequisite(s): no prerequisites
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 26222, RLST 29080

LLSO 29090. Topics in International and Comparative Law. 100 Units.

Based in Paris, the three week course will explore historical and contemporary European institutions that focus on economy, law and globalization.

Instructor(s): Cliff Ando, Kimberly Kay Hoang     Terms Offered: Summer
Prerequisite(s): Admission to the Paris September Program
Note(s): Instructor Consent

LLSO 29202. The Secret Side of International Politics. 100 Units.

This course introduces students to the secret side of international politics. The class features weekly lectures and "research/writing lab" meetings. The lecture and associated readings survey a wide range of theoretical approaches for describing and analyzing the causes and consequences of conducting international politics "behind closed doors." We will cover intelligence analysis, secret alliances, secrecy in crisis decision-making, and covert wartime military operations. We will draw on political science but also organization studies, psychology, and anthropology. Questions we will address include: What agreements do diplomats negotiate privately and why? For what ends do state use secrecy in wartime? What do covert cooperative partnerships look like and when do they succeed? What espionage practices do states use and how have they changed over time? The core assignment is an original research paper that draws on archival/declassified materials, due from each student at the end of term. Regular checkpoint assignments will take place during the quarter. In the weekly lab meetings, students will receive guidance in the research and writing process, including how to access relevant archival materials, how to organize your research materials, how to effectively prepare to write, and how to write well. This course is intended for advanced undergraduates (political science majors and non-majors welcome) with a large reading load and a challenging paper assignment.

Instructor(s): A. Carson     Terms Offered: Autumn
Equivalent Course(s): PLSC 29202

LLSO 29400. Research Seminar: LLSO. 100 Units.

A seminar for students preparing BA papers in LLSO.

Instructor(s): D. Hutchinson     Terms Offered: Autumn
Note(s): Not Offered in 2019-20

LLSO 29421. Politics of Commemoration. 100 Units.

Most of the time we pass in front of the statues, commemorative museums, monuments, and flags that inhabit our cities without noticing them. In recent years, however, they (along with pre-college history curricula) have become controversial across the globe. This course addresses those controversies primarily in Europe and the United States, but also in Latin America, West Africa, and South Africa. Through a series of case studies we will analyze the conditions of the creation of statues, monuments, and museums. Who conceptualized them and lobbied for their creation? Who paid for them? For whom were they originally intended? What message did they convey? What happened over time? How did their message change? Did they provoke controversy at the moment of their planning or inauguration or later and, if so, from whom? Equal attention will be paid to scholars' efforts to address the question of what these commemorative works actually do. If they really become unnoticeable, then why does the threat of their removal so often spark such intense controversy? Assignments: Active participation in class, one secondary text analysis, one analysis of a controversy, and one proposal for a monument, museum, or school curriculum.

Instructor(s): L. Auslander     Terms Offered: Spring
Equivalent Course(s): JWSC 29421, HIST 29421, HIST 39421, GLST 29526, CRES 39421, CRES 29421

LLSO 29528. Property and the Public Interest. 100 Units.

In this colloquium, drawing from law, history, philosophy, and social science, we examine the conflicted relationship between property and the public interest. Topics include the basis and evolution of private property rights, reasons for the state, and the relationship between property rights and the public interest. Assignments: Two short essays and a final paper.

Instructor(s): J. Levy     Terms Offered: Winter
Prerequisite(s): Consent of instructor. Course is required of LLSO juniors.
Equivalent Course(s): HIST 29528


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Faculty Director
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Administrative Assistant
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